Sir James Crichton-Browne MD FRS (29 November 1840 – 31 January 1938) was a leading British psychiatrist and medical psychologist. He is known for studies on the relationship of mental illness to brain injury and for the development of public health policies in relation to mental health. Crichton-Browne was the second son of the phrenologist Dr. William A.F. Browne.Crichton-Browne was an author and orator, editor of the highly influential West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports (six volumes, 1871 to 1876), one of Charles Darwin's correspondents and collaborators - on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) - and - like Duchenne de Boulogne and Hugh Welch Diamond - a pioneer of neuropsychiatric photography. Crichton-Browne was based at the West Riding Asylum in Wakefield from 1866 to 1875, and there he set up a unique asylum laboratory, establishing instruction in psychiatry for students from the nearby Leeds School of Medicine. In 1895, he delivered his celebrated Cavendish Lecture "On Dreamy Mental States" which attracted the disapproval of the American psychologist William James and in 1907 he summarised the conclusions of his neuropsychiatric research in his Royal Institution Lecture Dexterity and the Bend Sinister. In 1908, he joined the Board of the Bovril Company. In 1920, after forty-five years as Lord Chancellor's Medical Visitor, Crichton-Browne delivered the first Maudsley Lecture to the Medico-Psychological Association in the course of which he outlined his memories of Henry Maudsley. From around 1910, Crichton-Browne became publicly identified with the eugenics movement and social Darwinism, and this damaged his reputation towards the end of his life. In his last fifteen years or so, he also published seven volumes of reminiscences.Throughout his career, Crichton-Browne warned of the dangers of subjecting children to emotional stress during their education; emphasised the asymmetrical character of the human brain and behaviour; and also, like Emil Kraepelin and Alois Alzheimer, made some remarkable predictions about the neurological changes associated with severe psychiatric disorder.