Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici,  Michele Antonio Grandi , Galleria dell'Accademia, CC BY-NC-SA

Einleitung

Nur wenige Musikinstrumente tragen den Namen ihres Eigentümers, auch wenn dieser eine berühmte Persönlichkeit war. Werden sie nach dessen Tod verkauft, verliert sich meist schnell die Verbindung zwischen Instrument und Vorbesitzer. Wir kennen heute kein Cembalo mehr aus dem Besitz von Bach oder Couperin, ebenso wenig eine Violine Vivaldis oder Leclairs. Dies ändert sich mit dem Virtuosenkult des 19. Jahrhunderts. Als materielles Zeugnis von der Aura eines berühmten Musikers erhält jeder von ihm besessene Gegenstand eine geradezu fetischistische Wertschätzung. Diese Erscheinung verstärkt sich in der Popmusik des 20. Jahrhunderts, und die Instrumente von Rockbands werden zu begehrten Ikonen. Über das rein Anekdotische hinaus sind die wenigen bekannten Instrumente berühmter Persönlichkeiten aber auch wichtige Belege für Klänge und Spielmöglichkeiten der jeweiligen Epoche.

Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA
Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA

Komponisten

Ein Musikinstrument aus dem Besitz eines Komponisten oder eines großen Musikers besitzt heute eine besondere Bedeutung. Über das Anekdotenhafte oder bloßen Totemismus hinaus regen Instrumente wie der Erard-Flügel, den Liszt während einer Konzertreihe in Lyon im Juli 1844 spielte, oder wie die Zither aus dem Besitz von Franz Xaver Gruber, dem Komponisten der weltberühmten Weihnachtsmelodie „Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht“, die Fantasie von Menschen an, die sie heute sehen oder hören. Betrachtet man diese Erinnerungsstücke in ihrem historischen Zusammenhang, so geben sie auch Auskunft über den Geschmack des Künstlers und das Umfeld, in dem ein Werk entstanden ist.

Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA

Jazz und Popstars

Die Entwicklung der modernen Medien wie Rundfunk und Schallplatte bzw. CD und die globale Verbreitung der Popmusik haben Musikern die Stellung verehrter und gefeierter, lebender Ikonen verliehen. Es überrascht deshalb kaum, dass die Musikinstrumente, die sie spielten, oder Gegenstände aus ihrem Besitz Objekte der Anbetung geworden und bei Museen und Sammlern heiß begehrt sind. Einige Traditionen, etwa die des fahrenden Volks, verleihen diesen Gegenständen eine mystische Bedeutung. So kann zum Beispiel die Gitarre Django Reinhardts seit seinem Tod nicht mehr gespielt werden. In der materiellen Hinterlassenschaft einer Person oder einer Gruppe lebt auch deren Popularität fort. Ein Beispiel hierfür ist der Synthesizer der schwedischen Popgruppe ABBA aus der Zeit ihres größten Ruhms, der Museumsbesucher zum Träumen bringt. Zugleich aber liefern diese Objekte wertvolle Hinweise auf das Verhältnis von Musiker und Instrument. Frank Zappa etwa war ein unermüdlicher Musikforscher und wurde schnell auf die sich entwickelnden Möglichkeiten in der elektronischen Musik aufmerksam, die er in einigen seiner am stärksten von Experimenten geprägten Werke einsetzte.

 

Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today.  Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today. Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA

Gekrönte Häupter

Musikinstrumente aus dem Besitz eines Herrschers oder hochgestellter Regierungspersönlichkeiten sind oft besondere Gegenstände. Ob sie als Ehrengeschenk empfangen wurden oder ob sie der Herrscher zum eigenen Gebrauch erwarb - in den meisten Fällen sind sie von herausragender Machart. Sie belegten sowohl die Fähigkeiten des Instrumentenmachers als auch seinen Erfindungsreichtum, wenn es darum ging, die Pracht des Instruments auf den Rang des Empfängers abzustimmen. Das Vorhandensein eines Instruments in einer königlichen Sammlung war eine kaum zu übertreffende Ehre für den Instrumentenmacher, der keine Gelegenheit ausließ, darauf hinzuweisen. In diesem Zusammenhang konnte allerdings der dekorative Aspekt die Oberhand über musikalische Eigenschaften gewinnen, wie das Michele Antionio Grandi zugeschriebene Marmorpsalterium aus dem Besitz des Großherzogs Cosimo III de‘ Medici zeigt.

Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA