Diese Website verwendet Cookies, um sicherzustellen, dass Sie die besten Erfahrungen auf unserer Website erhalten. Durch Anklicken oder Navigieren der Website stimmen Sie zu, dass wir unsere Sammlung von Informationen über Cookies zulassen. Mehr Info
EuropeanaFashion Explore fashion - historical clothing and accessories, contemporary designs, catwalk photographs, drawings, sketches, plates, catalogues and videos - from museums and archives across Europe.
Europeana Fashion brings together the digitised collections of more than 30 European public and private institutions.
Melden Sie sich für den Europeana Fashion Newsletter an
Dressed to Travel Since travelling became an accessible activity in the nineteenth century, travellers have been in search for a special attire designed to accompany them on their fares, eventually promoting new trends and customs. Today travelling is an ordinary action that occupies much of everyone’s daily routine. By private or public means, people travel short or longer fares not only for leisure, but for work or study resons. If nowadays travelling has become an ordinary practice not requiring much more effort than to make the luggage fit the size restrictions, not that long ago travellers had the need to wear particular clothes designed precisely for travels. 'Toilette de voyage et d'excursion', in Femina magazine, August 1902. Courtesy MoMu - ModeMuseum Provincie Antwerpen, all rights reserved. The ‘travelling dress’ made its appearance in the nineteenth century, when the Industrial Revolution cut the costs of textile and clothes production, and people could afford specialized dress conceived to be worn only in specific occasions. Before this time, to travel was an occupation affordable only by the few and both higher and lower classes used to wear, in many cases, their best and most protective outerwear; from this time onwards, the improvement in the means of transport and the renovation of travel fares democratized travelling, letting more people embark on longer journeys. The key-words were now modesty and practicality. The ‘travelling dress’, in fact, did not only serve to protect the wearer from dust and dirt, but, whether people were travelling by train, ship or steamboat, they also needed a dress which allowed comfortable movements in a public transport - especially because the space for toilette was usually restricted or shared. In addition, it was essential for the dress to be appropriate for appearing in public among strangers. Day outfit comprising a coat and skirt, embroidered silk and cotton canvas, designed by Jacques Doucet, Paris, 1895. Courtesy Victoria and Albert Museum, CC BY. The development of the travelling dress moved along with the development of the travelling system. As the public means of transportation evolved, becoming overall more comfortable, and new means, such as cars and later airplanes, appeared, the travelling dress gradually lost its functionality. Instead, a precise etiquette arose, indicating what dress to wear during a particular fare or while on a precise mean of transport. If the ‘travelling dress’ lost its popularity in recent times, the research for the ‘ideal dress for journeys’ led fashion creators to design the most diverse and peculiar clothes. 21 Jun 11:37 blog
Dare to impress: Rudi Gernreich 'Below the Nave swimsuit, produced by Harmon Knitwear and designed by Rudi Gernreich, 1968. Courtesy MUDE - Museu do Design e da Moda, Colecção Francisco Capelo, all rights reserved. Rudolf 'Rudi' Gernreich is considered among the first designers who openly used fashion to make social statement and to speak in favor of equality and sexual freedom. Active in the 1960, his creations featured materials such as vinyl, plastic and artificial fibers, using simple and daring patterns, often featuring cutouts and bold and daring constructions. The list of items for which he is said to be first designer is quite long: the thong bathing suit, the swimsuit without a built-in bra, the so-called No Bra, and the topless monokini. All of these creations made headlines, also thanks to the efforts and strategies put in place to communicate them. For four times he was the recipient of the Coty American Fashion Critics Award. He also experimented with media, producing what is regarded as the first fashion video in 1966: "Basic Black: William Claxton w/Peggy Moffit", featuring model Peggy Moffitt, who sort of became the face (and body!) associated with his creations. In 1968 Gernreich closed his company but continued his work as a designer. From the beginning of his career, Gernreich also designed costumes for various film productions: in 1960, he was in charge of Eva Marie Saint's wardrobe in Otto Preminger's film Exodus; in 1970 he designed "Dress Codes" of the new decade for the January issue of Life magazine. Interestingly, he also declared his idea of future fashion was linked not to a binary definition of gender, but instead to a non-diversity, and worked on the concept of "unisex." His activism did not stop at fashion design: Gernreich was in fact a founding member of and financially supported the activities of the Mattachine Society, one of the earliest LGBT organizations established in the United States. 19 Jun 04:26 blog
Europeana Fashion Focus: 'La Perse' Jacket by Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1956 The image shows a detail of 'La Perse', a jacket designed by couturier Cristóbal Balenciaga in 1956. The object is currently part of the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag Collection. Cristóbal Balenciaga was a Spanish couturier, who merged the atmospheres of his homeland with the precepts of French Couture. Son of a seamstress, at the age of twelve he began working as an apprentice in a tailor shop in Getaria, his hometown in the north of Spain. When Balenciaga was just a teenager, a noblewoman in his town became his customer and patron, sending him to Madrid to train as a tailor in one of the best schools of the capital. He opened a boutique in San Sebastián, in the north of Spain, in 1919, and the other two branches in Madrid and Barcelona. Amongst his clients, were the Spanish royal family and the aristocracy. However, at the end of the 1930s, the Spanish Civil War forced him to close his business and immigrate to Paris. He opened his first atelier on George V Avenue in 1937. Working in Paris, he established his fame as ‘The King of Fashion’ for the groundbreaking designs he presented, and especially for the iconic silhouettes, he developed during the 1950s and 1960s. An acute observer of the social scenario in front of him, considering the revolution that happened in France in front of his eyes, in 1968 he decided to close his maison, declaring that that moment was the end of what he considered fashion. *This text is taken from the exhibition 'Les Couturiers' - check it out here to discover more: https://bit.ly/2lcXnfj 17 Jun 13:45 blog
Revisiting ‘RRRIPP!! Paper Fashion’ exhibition at MoMu In 2009 MoMu hosted the exhibition ‘RRRIPP!! Paper Fashion’ that investigated the use of paper in fashion design and the historical importance of the paper dress. ‘RRRIPP!! Paper Fashion' exhibition at MoMu. Courtesy MoMu - ModeMuseum Provincie Antwerpen, all rights reserved. Paper is the material of the ephemeral, the physical support where fashion is usually sketched, represented and through which it is diffused. Realm of the bidimensional, paper flattens fashion in photographies, drawings and illustrations or explores it through words. However, in the 1960s the relationship between paper and fashion went beyond the two dimensions, and paper dresses became a craze which would have made history. Vassilis Zidianakis, curator and co-founder of the non-profit cultural organization ATOPOS CVC, that explores the expression and adornment of the human body through various initiatives and projects, investigated the importance and influence of these paper dresses through the touring exhibition ‘RRRIPP!! Paper Fashion’, hosted at MoMu in 2009. ‘RRRIPP!! Paper Fashion' exhibition. Courtesy MoMu - ModeMuseum Provincie Antwerpen, all rights reserved. Set in an original installation designed by the French Industrial Design office Normal Studio, the exhibition displayed a selection of original paper dresses from the 1960s part of the ATOPOS CVC own collection, alongside more recent experiments by contemporary fashion designers and artists, who were asked to create something inspired by the dresses in the collection. Sophia Kokosalaki, Michael Cepress, Yiorgos Eleftheriades, Johanna Trudzinski, Bas Kosters, Angelos Bratis, Deux Hommes, Marcus Tomlinson, as well as the internationally renowned stage designer Bob Wilson participated with their creations to the exhibition, together with Dirk Van Saene, John Galliano, Issey Miyake, A.F. Vandevorst, Hussein Chalayan, Kosuke Tsumura, Walter Van Beirendonck, Ann Demeulemeester. Although paper had been used for clothing in different geographies and chronologies - for instance, for the papier-mâché clothes and accessories common during the 18th century and for the paper kimonos of the Japanese Edo period - it was in 1966 that the dresses became a global trend. They were first released in America, as a mean to promote the products of a paper manufacturing company. These light, disposable dresses soon captured the vibrant atmosphere of the 1960s and became a big phenomenon; they were sold in major department stores and printed with bold and whimsical pop-art patterns. Their popularity though was ephemeral as their materiality: by 1968 they almost disappeared from any market. 13 Jun 10:40 blog
Europeana Fashion Focus: La Mode Illustrée, 18th February 1900 La Mode Illustrée, February 1900. Courtesy MoMu, all rights reserved The image shows the cover of an issue dated 18th February 1900 of La Mode Illustrée. The magazine was first published in 1859 in Paris. It was one of the most important French magazines of the late nineteenth that carried on well into the twentieth century. It was published on Sundays, with illustrations and description of Victorian attires and accessories, in the form of fashion plates that could be framed and used for display. In the second half of nineteenth century, the fashion market underwent a huge expansion both in America and Britain, where numerous fashion engravings and patterns were being printed and sold. Paris, however, was the center of it all, and La Mode Illustrée was the unrivaled leader of the fashion engraving during this period. From 1860 to 1872 La Mode created some of the finest fashion plates of the era. Its engravings were larger, more detailed and much more artistically hand-coloured than any of its competitors in England, France or America. By 1872, however, the high cost of publishing these original works were too prohibitive, and La Mode was shut down. For years these original engravings have been avidly sought by collectors. The appeal of these works, in fact, has been so strong that photomechanical reproductions have been made since the early 1920’s. The europeana fashion archive, thanks to the MoMu holdings, has an extensive number of issues of the magazine that can be browsed entirely online. 30 May 08:45 blog
Maria Monaci Gallenga: Ars Tecnica Maria Monaci Gallenga is a pivotal figure in the history of fashion, since she contributed to the acquisition, for the discipline and production of fashion, of autonomous value and dignity with respect to the artistic product. Detail of a feminine cape designed by Maria Monaci Gallenga, 1920-1922 ca. Courtesy Galleria del Costume di Palazzo Pitti, all rights reserved Maria Monaci Gallenga was the daughter of Ernesto Monaci, professor of philology at the University of Rome La Sapienza, and during her youth she was surrounded by well-known personalities from the literary and artistic world of the time. Her career in design started in the 1910s: in those years she exhibited her creations, which included objects of furniture, cushions and panels with drawings printed with a new texcnique she invented, in many public events: the exhibition of the Roman Secession, the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, the California exhibition. Demonstrating strong entrepreneurial skills, she was able to organise the flow of work in her atelier and transform it into a company able to produce big numbers and supply also the American market, whose costumers were fascinated by her innovative experimentations with printing and design. She also worked with Vittorio Zecchin, with whom he took part in the Amsterdam and Paris exhibitions in the 1920s. She also collaborated with Antonio Maraini and Marcello Piacentini. She was also part of the National Agency for Crafts and Small Industry, founded in 1925 to promote the image of Italian products in the world. After the participation in the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts, held in Paris, in 1928 she opened the 'Boutique Italienne' together with Bice Pittoni and Carla Visconti di Modrone, a permanent showcase of the best products of Italian art. In 1934 she left France to return to Rome, where her shop still was an active laboratory of ideas of artists working in different sectors. She retired from the business in 1938, leaving his son to run the Via Veneto store, which specialized in interior design. The fame of Maria Monaci Gallenga is linked to the invention of a particular technique of printing , which consisted in the use of wooden matrices on which a glue was applied before being pressed onto the fabric, on which was then distributed a powder of metallic pigments in gold and silver. This way, one colour blended into the other, obtaining an effect that made the fabric look hand-painted rather than printed. As source of inspiration, Gallenga used both motifs from contemporaneous artists as well as ancient models. Her way of treating the ancient motifs was so original and modern, she used to study their structure and 'break it' into singular details and simpler groups. 29 May 08:21 blog