Xylophone Kidimba, Anonymous Luba maker, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver, CC BY-NC-SA

Introduktion

Över hela världen har musikinstrument varit en viktig del i människors liv, inte bara för att skapa musik utan som praktiska ljudverktyg i vardagen.

I många religiösa riter är instrumenten en absolut nödvändighet. De är redskapen som hjälper människan att komma i kontakt med det övernaturliga. Instrumentet blir en bro mellan de olika världarna. Klangen åkallar gudarna eller ger röst åt förfädernas andar.

Under skördefester och årstidsriter används instrumenten för att bekräfta och förnya en universell harmoni och för att försäkra sig om goda skördar.

Vid initieringsriter som markerar viktiga milstolpar i en människas liv spelar musikinstrumenten en avgörande roll. I ceremonier kring dop, bröllop och begravningar är musiken ofta ett oumbärligt inslag.

Användningen av instrumenten skiftar mellan olika kulturer och religioner, så någon generell bild går inte att teckna. Den här delen av utställningen ger några få exempel som illustrerar den viktiga roll instrumenten spelar.

Vièle "sorud", Jan Mohammad [This fiddle is carved with a unique design from a single piece of wood from the tecomella undulata tree, a species found in Thar Desert region of northwest and western India. The instrument belongs to the sarinda family, which is in widespread use from Iran to the eastern borders of Bengal. The seven thin metal strings placed under the playing strings resonate in sympathy and enrich the timbre of the instrument when the main strings are bowed. Depending on the desired musical style, the instrument is played with a bow with an appropriate thickness of horsehair. The Baluchistan Sorud is mainly played by professional musicians who perform a repertoire composed of mystical Sufi songs. It is also used solo in ritual ceremonies of exorcism and healing.], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès, CC BY-NC-SA
Vièle "sorud", Jan Mohammad [This fiddle is carved with a unique design from a single piece of wood from the tecomella undulata tree, a species found in Thar Desert region of northwest and western India. The instrument belongs to the sarinda family, which is in widespread use from Iran to the eastern borders of Bengal. The seven thin metal strings placed under the playing strings resonate in sympathy and enrich the timbre of the instrument when the main strings are bowed. Depending on the desired musical style, the instrument is played with a bow with an appropriate thickness of horsehair. The Baluchistan Sorud is mainly played by professional musicians who perform a repertoire composed of mystical Sufi songs. It is also used solo in ritual ceremonies of exorcism and healing.], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès, CC BY-NC-SA

Tillbedjan Av Förfäderna

Att vörda minnet av sina förfäder är fortfarande ett levande inslag i många kulturer, även här i väst. Men framför allt hör det till asiatisk tradition.

I många afrikanska kulturer anser man att förfäderna kan påverka de levandes tillvaro med både goda och onda krafter. Förfäder och gamla måste därför blidkas med musik.

Det sker i samband med speciella fester och riter som ofta pågår i flera dagar, t ex hos Yoruba-folket. Vissa musikinstrument har ett starkt symbolvärde som ”förfädernas röster”, t ex vinare och brummare.

Shofar, Unknown, [The shofar horn, traditionally that of a ram, is blown in synagogues during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.], Musik&Teatermuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Shofar, Unknown, [The shofar horn, traditionally that of a ram, is blown in synagogues during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.], Musik&Teatermuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Bull roarer, Anonymous maker [The bull roarer is an ancient ritual musical instrument which dates back to the Paleolithic period. It is found in Europe, Asia, the Indian sub-continent, Africa, the Americas, and Australia. The bull roarer represents the voice of ancestors.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver , CC BY-NC-SA
Bull roarer, Anonymous maker [The bull roarer is an ancient ritual musical instrument which dates back to the Paleolithic period. It is found in Europe, Asia, the Indian sub-continent, Africa, the Americas, and Australia. The bull roarer represents the voice of ancestors.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver , CC BY-NC-SA
Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, Anonymous maker from the lower Kongo region [Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, a pre-colonial African state from approximately the 15th to the 19th century in what is now the Republic of Congo.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, Anonymous maker from the lower Kongo region [Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, a pre-colonial African state from approximately the 15th to the 19th century in what is now the Republic of Congo.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA

Lantliga Skörderitualer

Livet i jordbrukssamhällen på landsbygden präglas av ritualer kring årstidernas växlingar.

Fruktbarhetsriter och jaktceremonier med sång och spel på instrument har funnits överallt på jorden. De flesta av dessa riter utförs endast vid speciella tillfällen. Andra musikaliska uttryck överlever främst av praktiska skäl - t ex pygmeernas visslande vid jakt.

Sleigh bells, 1880/1890, Unknown, [These sleigh bells were mounted on a horse collar for winter sleigh rides in the countryside. The ringing bells warned pedestrians of an approaching sledge gliding silently in the snow. They were also a form or personalisation for their owner, a Franconian country-nobleman. The frame is made of brass, originally silver-plated, and the bells of bell-metal, a hard alloy used for making bells. The decorative feather bushes are made from horsehair coloured in the Franconian red and white.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum , CC BY-NC-SA
Sleigh bells, 1880/1890, Unknown, [These sleigh bells were mounted on a horse collar for winter sleigh rides in the countryside. The ringing bells warned pedestrians of an approaching sledge gliding silently in the snow. They were also a form or personalisation for their owner, a Franconian country-nobleman. The frame is made of brass, originally silver-plated, and the bells of bell-metal, a hard alloy used for making bells. The decorative feather bushes are made from horsehair coloured in the Franconian red and white.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum , CC BY-NC-SA
Xylophone Kidimba, Anonymous Luba maker, [Xylophone with nine bars, the lowest sounds being repeated an octave higher. Although xylophones normally belong to chiefs, they can also be played during ritual ceremonies], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver, CC BY-NC-SA
Xylophone Kidimba, Anonymous Luba maker, [Xylophone with nine bars, the lowest sounds being repeated an octave higher. Although xylophones normally belong to chiefs, they can also be played during ritual ceremonies], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver, CC BY-NC-SA
Dhah / Drum, Unknown, [Double-headed barrel drum of the indigenous Newar people, the creators of the historical civilisation of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. It is played with a stick on the left and with the hand on the right. It can be used as a processional or a solo instrument.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
Dhah / Drum, Unknown, [Double-headed barrel drum of the indigenous Newar people, the creators of the historical civilisation of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. It is played with a stick on the left and with the hand on the right. It can be used as a processional or a solo instrument.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA

Födelse, Bröllop, Begravning

Ritualer kring födelse, pubertet, giftermål och död är alla former av initieringsriter, Riterna markerar en passage i människans livscykel, från ett tillstånd till ett annat eller från en social position till en annan. Ofta ingår sång, dans och spel på olika instrument.

I många kulturer används t ex skallror och xylofoner vid tvillingfödsel och i vissa begravningsriter får människoliknande instrument representera den avlidne.

Naturtrompete, Johann Leonhard III Ehe, [This natural trumpet comes from a set of three identically made instruments. Originally, the trumpets were part of the inventory of a church in Weiden in der Oberpfalz, about 100 km away from Nuremberg. They were probably used for the musical accompaniment at events such as the ordinations of priests, baptisms and weddings.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
Naturtrompete, Johann Leonhard III Ehe, [This natural trumpet comes from a set of three identically made instruments. Originally, the trumpets were part of the inventory of a church in Weiden in der Oberpfalz, about 100 km away from Nuremberg. They were probably used for the musical accompaniment at events such as the ordinations of priests, baptisms and weddings.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
Messgeläut, Unknown, [These altar bells (sanctus bells) are used in a Catholic Mass to announce the consecration of the wine and bread into the blood and body of Christ. This custom, in which altar boys sound two different rings, is no longer widely practiced. Brass instrument with a central part and four corner towers; the covering of the central part and each of the four corner towers is decorated with a flower, the frame with roman arches; riveted on to the handle is the decoration with ears of corn and pine cones; in the central part and each of the corner towers there is a small bell with tulip-shaped curved ribbing; every bell has an iron clapper which is thickened on the underside.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
Messgeläut, Unknown, [These altar bells (sanctus bells) are used in a Catholic Mass to announce the consecration of the wine and bread into the blood and body of Christ. This custom, in which altar boys sound two different rings, is no longer widely practiced. Brass instrument with a central part and four corner towers; the covering of the central part and each of the four corner towers is decorated with a flower, the frame with roman arches; riveted on to the handle is the decoration with ears of corn and pine cones; in the central part and each of the corner towers there is a small bell with tulip-shaped curved ribbing; every bell has an iron clapper which is thickened on the underside.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
Mégaphone, Unknown, [This vamp horn, which probably comes from Bwende in the Republic of Congo is used during funerals. It represents the deceased person and it is held upwards. The sound hole is on the back side. It amplifies the whispering, singing or shouting by a member of the mourning clan.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Copyright Not Evaluated
Mégaphone, Unknown, [This vamp horn, which probably comes from Bwende in the Republic of Congo is used during funerals. It represents the deceased person and it is held upwards. The sound hole is on the back side. It amplifies the whispering, singing or shouting by a member of the mourning clan.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Copyright Not Evaluated