Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici,  Michele Antonio Grandi , Galleria dell'Accademia, CC BY-NC-SA

Introduktion

Med några få undantag bär musikinstrument sällan några kännetecken efter sina tidigare ägare, även om dessa var välkända personer. Efter ägarens död har instrumentet kanske sålts och därmed har känslan av personlig anknytning snabbt gått förlorad. Var finns t ex Bachs cembalo eller Vivaldis violin idag? I samband med 1800-talets virtuos-kult fick föremål som tillhört kända personer ett ökat värde. De blev en slags materialisering av konstnärens aura. Trenden utvecklades och förstärktes i populärmusiken under 1900-talet och instrument som tillhört stora rockikoner är idag mycket eftertraktade.

Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA
Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA

Kompositörer

Ett instrument som tillhört en speciell kompositör eller som spelats av en stor musiker är idag mycket eftertraktat. Dessa instrument, t ex det piano tillverkat av Erard som Liszt spelade på 1844, stimulerar fantasin hos de som ser eller hör dem idag.

I sin kontext kan instrumentet också ge information om sin tidigare ägare och ge ökad förståelse för den musik som skapats.

Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA

Jazz & Popartister

Den mediala utvecklingen (radio, TV m m) med sin globalisering av populärmusiken har gjort att populära artister blivit levande ikoner som hyllas över hela världen. Då är det heller inte så märkligt att instrument och föremål som tillhört dessa personer blir kultföremål, eftertraktade av museer och samlare.

En del traditioner, t ex den zigenska, ger föremålen mytiskt värde. Ett exempel är Django Reinhardts gitarr, som inte får spelas efter hans död.

Efter att en grupp eller artist slutat sin karriär, odlas ändå populariteten genom de föremål de använt. Nostalgiska besökare kan t ex se Abbas synthesizer och minnas gruppens storhetstid. Instrumenten vittnar också om den relation musikerna haft till sina instrument. Frank Zappa var en outtröttlig musikutforskare och bidrog till utvecklingen av den elektroniska musiken, något han använde i en del av sin mest experimentella musik.

Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today.  Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today. Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA

Kungligheter

Musikinstrument som tillhört kungligheter och stadshuvuden är ofta exeptionella. Vare sig de har varit gåvor eller beställningar av en monark för eget bruk, är de oftast av utsökt hantverk. Instrumentet vittnar om tillverkarens skicklighet och uppfinningsrikedom och förväntas motsvara beställarens höga status.

Att få finnas representerad med ett instrument i kungliga samlingar var en stor ära för tillverkaren.

Ibland var dekorationer och utsmyckningar viktigare än den musikaliska kvaliteten.

Ett exempel är greve Cosimo III av Medicis hackbräde av marmor, som tillskrivs Michele Antonio Grandi.

Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA