Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi , Galleria dell'Accademia, CC BY-NC-SA

Inleiding

Op enkele uitzonderingen na, dragen muziekinstrumenten nooit de naam van hun eigenaar, hoe bekend die ook moge geweest zijn. Meestal worden hun muziekinstrumenten na hun dood verkocht en wordt de band met de eigenaar vlug vergeten. Zo is er geen klavecimbel bekend dat zou hebben toebehoord aan Bach of Couperin, noch zijn er sporen van een viool van Vivaldi of Leclair. Met de opkomst van de virtuozencultus in de 19e eeuw krijgen voorwerpen die aan grote virtuozen hebben toebehoord echter een fetisj gehalte dat hun artistieke aura een materiële dimensie geeft. In de popmuziek van de 20e eeuw wordt die trend nog versterkt. Zo worden muziekinstrumenten van rock bands bijvoorbeeld gezocht als icoon objecten. De zeldzame instrumenten van beroemdheden die tot ons kwamen hebben meer dan alleen maar een anekdotisch karakter. Zij bieden ons belangrijke voorbeelden van het klankideaal en de speelmogelijkheden van hun tijd.

Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA
Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA

Componisten

Een muziekinstrument dat eens in het bezit was van een grote componist heeft ook vandaag nog belang, wars van het anekdotische of het totemkarakter ervan. De Erard vleugelpiano die Liszt op zijn concertreis in Lyon bespeelde in 1844 of de zither die aan Franz Xaver Gruber toebehoorde – de componist van de wereldberoemde kerstmelodie Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht - spreken nog steeds tot de verbeelding van hen die ze vandaag bezichtigen of beluisteren. Als men die muziekinstrumenten in hun context plaatst, geven zij ook informatie over de smaak van die kunstenaars en helpen zij ons om de omstandigheden waarin zij werkten te begrijpen.

Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA

Jazz & Pop Sterren

Door de explosieve groei van massamedia als radio, TV en grammofoonplaat, en later door de mondiale verspreiding van de popmuziek kregen uitvoerende kunstenaars het statuut van levende iconen, die wereldwijd gevierd en verafgood werden. Men moet er zich dus niet over verbazen dat de muziekinstrumenten die zij bespeelden of de voorwerpen die zij in hun bezit hadden cultobjecten geworden zijn, gezocht door museums en verzamelaars. In sommige tradities, zoals bijvoorbeeld in de Roma gemeenschap, wordt aan dergelijke objecten een mythische waarde toegekend – vergelijk de gitaar van Django Reinhardt die na zijn dood niet meer bespeeld mag worden. Populaire groepen of individuen leven voort in objecten die ze hebben nagelaten – denk aan de synthesizer van ABBA die nu bewonderd wordt door bezoekers die met nostalgie terugdenken aan de hoogdagen van deze Zweedse popgroep. Soms zijn het de composities die een licht werpen op de verhouding tussen de musicus en zijn muziekinstrument. Zo was Frank Zappa een onvermoeibare zoeker die oog had voor de ontwikkelingen in de elektronische muziek die hij trouwens gebruikte in sommige van zijn meest experimentele composities.

Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, ca 1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today.  Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, ca 1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today. Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA

Koningen En Koninginnen

Muziekinstrumenten die hebben toebehoord aan de kroon of aan hoogwaardigheidsbekleders zijn vaak uitzonderlijke objecten. Of zij nu gegeven werden of verworven voor eigen gebruik, vaak zijn zij van hoogwaardige kwaliteit. Zij getuigen van het vakmanschap van de bouwer die ze heeft ontworpen en van diens creativiteit. Hun pracht is recht evenredig met de status van de bestemmeling. Als zo een muziekinstrument deel ging uitmaken van een vorstelijke verzameling betekende dat een onloochenbaar bewijs van erkenning voor de bouwer, die daar dan dankbaar naar verwees. Soms haalde het decoratieve aspect het echter op het muikale, zoals bij het marmeren hakkebord dat toegeschreven wordt aan Michele Antonio Grandi en dat eens toebehoorde aan Cosmo III de Medici, groothertog van Toscane.

Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA