Alma Rosé (3 November 1906 – 5 April 1944) was an Austrian violinist of Jewish descent. Her uncle was the composer Gustav Mahler. She was deported by the Nazis to the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau. There she directed an orchestra of prisoners who played to their captors in order that they should stay alive. Alma Rosé died in the concentration camp, probably of food poisoning. Rosé's experience in Auschwitz is depicted in the controversial play "Playing for Time" by Fania Fénelon.