Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (/ˈnjuːtən/; 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of infinitesimal calculus.Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos. This work also demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. His prediction that the Earth should be shaped as an an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, which helped convince most Continental European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, and developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function.Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian and, unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of biblical chronology and alchemy, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society. He also served the British government as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint.

Items by Isaac Newton

- Isaac Newton
## Fra gli Agiati. II tempio della filosofia poema, in cui non accrescimenti. e osservazioni del medisimo autore s'illustrall sepolcro d'Isacco Newton (1757)

### Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton## Lineae tertii ordinis Neutonianae, sive, Illustratio tractatus D. Neutoni De enumeratione linearum tertii ordinis cui subjungitur, solutio trium problematum (1717)

### Isaac Newton

Illustrations: Illustrations

Isaac Newton## A demonstration of some of the principal sections of sir Isaac Newton's principales of natural philosophy (1730)

### Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton## A view of the gold and silver coins of all nations exhibit ed in above four hundred copper plate engravings correctly executed by an emin ent artist, to which is added in a regular index, the name, assay, weight and value... (1808)

### Isaac Newton

Illustrations: Illustrations; Illustrations: Plates; Edition: 2; [2d ed.]; by J. Ede

Isaac Newton## Le vrai systéme de physique generale de m. Isaac Newton. Exposé et analysé en parallele avec celui de Descartes; a la portée du commun des physiciens. Par le R. P. Louis Castel ... (1743)

### Isaac Newton; Louis Bertrand Castel

Le vrai systéme de physique generale de m. Isaac Newton. Exposé et analysé en parallele avec celui de Descartes; a la portée du commun des physiciens. Par le R. P. Louis Castel .... - A Paris : chez Claude-François Simon, fils, imprimeur-libraire, rue de la Parcheminerie,...

- Physics

Isaac Newton; Louis Bertrand Castel- Voltaire; Isaac Newton
- Isaac Newton
## Recueil de diverses pieces, sur la philosophie, la religion naturelle, l'histoire, les mathematiques, &c. Par Mrs. Leibniz, Clarke, Newton, & autres autheurs celebres. 1 (1740)

### Isaac Newton

Recueil de diverses pieces, sur la philosophie, la religion naturelle, l'histoire, les mathematiques, &c. Par Mrs. Leibniz, Clarke, Newton, & autres autheurs celebres. 1. - A Amsterdam : chez Francois Changuion, 1740. - CII [i.e. 96], [2], 429, [6] p., [1] c. di tav. : 1...

Isaac Newton## Sermons preached at Boyle's lecture ; Remarks upon a discourse of free-thinking ; Proposals for an edition of the Greek Testament; etc. etc. (1838)

### Richard Bentley; Isaac Newton

by Richard Bentley ; edited, with notes, by the Rev. Alexander Dyce.; 1692.; Reprint of a selection of Bentley's publications.; Half-title: The works of Richard Bentley, D.D. collected and edited by the Rev. Alexander Dyce. Vol. III. Theological writings.

Richard Bentley; Isaac Newton## Exemplar of Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Labridae), Cuckoo wrasse. Fish Collection of the Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Lisbon, Portugal (MB06-004723).

### Isaac Newton

Specimen of Labrus mixtus, from Labridae family, captured on the coast of Matosinhos, Oporto, Portugal, by Isaac Newton. This sample, deposited at the Fish Collection of the Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (Lisbon, Portugal) under the numberMB06-004723,...

Isaac Newton## Exemplar of Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Labridae), Cuckoo wrasse. Fish Collection of the Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Lisbon, Portugal (MB06-004723).

### Isaac Newton

Specimen of Labrus mixtus, from Labridae family, captured on the coast of Matosinhos, Oporto, Portugal, by Isaac Newton. This sample, deposited at the Fish Collection of the Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (Lisbon, Portugal) under the numberMB06-004723,...

Isaac Newton