‘Abd al-Raḥman al-Kawākibī (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الكواكبي, 1855–1902) was a Syrian author and Pan-Islamic Arab solidarity supporter. He was one of the most prominent intellectuals of his time; however, his thoughts and writings continue to be relevant to the issues of Islamic identity and Pan-Arabism. His criticisms of the Ottoman Empire eventually lead to Arabs calling for the sovereignty of the Arab Nations, setting the basis for Pan-Arab nationalism. Al-Kawakibi articulated his ideas in two influential books, Tabai al-Istibdad wa-Masari al-Isti’bad (The Nature of Despotism) and Umm Al-Qura (Mother of the village). He died in 1902 of “mysterious” causes. His family alleged that he was poisoned by Turkish agents.