Explore Europe’s cultural heritage
Get involved, share your data or use ours
Remix cultural content with our APIs & datasets
Connecting to the academic community
Sami Efendi (Ottoman Turkish: سامى Modern Turkish: Hattat Mehmet Sâmi Efendi) (1837-1912) was an Ottoman calligrapher. The Tughra found its definitive shape in the era of Abdulhamid II in the hands of Sami Efendi.
Thank you for your feedback. If needed, we'll get back to you as soon as possible.