Credits

Europeana presents Pioneers in collaboration with Mariya Gabriel, European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society, a leading campaigner for women in the digital sector. This exhibition is part of Commissioner Mariya Gabriel’s strategy to empower women and increase their participation in the digital economy. 

Throughout history, there have always been women who have overcome the odds to make important contributions to social, economic and technological domains. Many of these stories, however, are not widely known. Europeana, a European Commission initiative as Europe’s digital platform for cultural heritage, provides access to such digitised resources and Pioneers uses that content and seeks to raise awareness of women’s historical contributions to society and provide a platform for the representation of emblematic professional women in Europe. 

 

Sources and further reading

Maria Skłodowska-Curie

Marie Curie in Wikipedia

Marie Curie the Scientist, Marie Curie UK

How Marie Curie Helped Save a Million Soldiers During World War I, Amanda Davis, February 2016, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 

Maria Sibylla Merian

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Wulf, Andrea. The Woman Who Made Science Beautiful, 2016. The Atlantic.

Etheridge, Kay. Maria Sibylla Merian: The First Ecologist?, 2011. Gettysburg College

Maria Sibylla Merian. Künstlerin und Forscherin aus Frankfurt (video), 2017. Städel Museum

Digital version of Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Gallery with Maria Sibylla Merian's works, Europeana

Sofonisba Anguissola

Fulmer, Betsy. Sofonisba Anguissola: Marvel of Nature, June 2005, Academic Forum 23, Henderson State University

Sofonisba Anguissola in Britannica

Smart History profile of Sofonisba Anguissola

Aletta Jacobs

Aletta Jacobs in Wikipedia

ATRIA, Institute on gender equality and women's history on Aletta Jacobs

Overview of Aletta Jacobs publications (Dutch)

Humanistic Canon: Aletta Jacobs (Dutch)

Feminism in the Netherlands (Wikipedia)

Madame de Staël

Gray, Francine du Plessix. Madame de Staël: The First Modern Woman. October 2008, Atlas & Co.

Goodden, Angelica. Madame de Staël: The Dangerous Exile. May 2008, Oxford Scholarship Online

Madame de Staël in Wikipedia

Germaine de Staël - the Woman Napoleon Feared from Sheroes of history (blog series)

Two female profiles (in the foreground Marianne Preindelsberger), 1881, Helene Schjerfbeck, Finnish National Gallery, CC0
Portrait of Marie Curie, Unknown photographer, Tekniska museet, Public Domain Mark
Portraits of Marie and Pierre Curie, Photogravure after Henri Manuel and Eugene Pirou, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Marie and Pierre Curie, he holding aloft a glowing specimen of radium, 1904, Coloured lithograph after J. M. Price, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Marie Curie - Mobile Military Hospital X-Ray-Unit, ca. 1915, Unknown photographer, Wikimedia Commons after Eve Curie: Madame Curie. S. 329, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Marie Curie and her daughter Irène, 1925, Unknown photographer, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Portrait of Maria Sibÿlla Merian, Johann Rudolf Schellenburg, Bibliothèque de l'INHA, Public Domain Mark
Tulip, two branches of myrtle and two shells, ca. 1700, Maria Sibylla Merian (attributed to), Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Transformation of a giant peacock moth, 1679, Maria Sibylla Merian, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Vase with Flowers, 1700, Rachel Ruysch, Mauritshuis, Public Domain Mark
A plantation in Suriname, 1707, Dirk Valkenburg, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Scarlet Ibis with an Egg, 1699 - 1700, Maria Sibylla Merian, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Self-portrait, Sofonisba Anguissola, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola, unknown artist, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Asdrubale Bitten by a Crayfish, 1553-1554, Sofonisba Anguissola, Wikimedia Commons after Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Public Domain Mark
Virgin and Child, 1542-1623, Sofonisba Anguissola, Statens Museum for Kunst, CC0
The Chess Game (Portrait of the artist's sisters playing chess), 1555, Sofonisba Anguissola, Wikimedia Commons after National Museum Poznań, Public Domain Mark
Self-portrait, 1554, Sofonisba Anguissola, Kunsthistorisches Museum, In Copyright
Portrait sketch, Sofonisba Anguissola, Bibliothèque nationale de France, No Copyright - Other Known Legal Restrictions
Portrait of Sofonisba, 1624, Anthony van Dyck, Wikimedia Commons after Dulwich Picture Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola, unknown artist, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Aletta H. Jacobs, c.1880, unknown, Wikimedia Commons after University of Groningen, Public Domain Mark
Petition from 1871 to be admitted to Groningen University, Collection Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Archives, Netherlands, Public Domain Mark
Stem pessary, Germany, 1925-1935, Rauch (company), Science Museum, London, CC BY
Aletta Jacob's pin: "Women’s Suffrage", Unknown, Collection IAV-Atria, Institute on gender equality and women’s history, CC0
Aletta Jacobs, 1919, Isaac Israels, Collection IAV-Atria, Institute on gender equality and women’s history, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Mme de Staël, Marie-Éléonore Godefroid, Wikimedia after Collection Chateau de Versailles, Public Domain Mark
Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, 1749-1802, Ulrica Fredrica Pasch, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Napoleon I as first consul, Per Köhler, Finnish National Gallery, CC0
Journal des Luxus und der Moden, 1797, T 34, Georg Melchior Kraus, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Conférence de Madame de Staël [estampe], Philibert-Louis Debucourt, Bibliothèque nationale de France, No Copyright - Other Known Legal Restrictions
Madame de Staël, Unknown creator, Bibliothèque de l'INHA, Public Domain Mark