Credits

Europeana presents Pioneers in collaboration with Mariya Gabriel, European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society, a leading campaigner for women in the digital sector. This exhibition is part of Commissioner Mariya Gabriel’s strategy to empower women and increase their participation in the digital economy. 

Throughout history, there have always been women who have overcome the odds to make important contributions to social, economic and technological domains. Many of these stories, however, are not widely known. Europeana, a European Commission initiative as Europe’s digital platform for cultural heritage, provides access to such digitised resources and Pioneers uses that content and seeks to raise awareness of women’s historical contributions to society and provide a platform for the representation of emblematic professional women in Europe. 

 

Authors:
Larissa Borck (Dora Gabe)
Beth Daley (Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu)
Marijke Everts (Sofonisba Anguissola)
Douglas McCarthy (Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Maria Sibylla Merian)
Adrian Murphy (Amalia Lindegren)  
Ad Pollé (Madame de Staël)
Reem Weda (Aletta Jacobs)

Coordinator:
Małgorzata Szynkielewska

 

Sources and further reading

Maria Skłodowska-Curie

Marie Curie in Wikipedia

Marie Curie the Scientist, Marie Curie UK

Davis, Amanda. How Marie Curie Helped Save a Million Soldiers During World War I, February 2016, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 

Maria Sibylla Merian

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Wulf, Andrea. The Woman Who Made Science Beautiful, 2016. The Atlantic.

Etheridge, Kay. Maria Sibylla Merian: The First Ecologist?, 2011. Gettysburg College

Maria Sibylla Merian. Künstlerin und Forscherin aus Frankfurt (video), 2017. Städel Museum

Digital version of Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Gallery with Maria Sibylla Merian's works, Europeana

Sofonisba Anguissola

Fulmer, Betsy. Sofonisba Anguissola: Marvel of Nature, June 2005, Academic Forum 23, Henderson State University

Sofonisba Anguissola in Britannica

Smart History profile of Sofonisba Anguissola

Aletta Jacobs

Aletta Jacobs in Wikipedia

ATRIA, Institute on gender equality and women's history on Aletta Jacobs

Overview of Aletta Jacobs publications (Dutch)

Humanistic Canon: Aletta Jacobs (Dutch)

Feminism in the Netherlands (Wikipedia)

Madame de Staël

Gray, Francine du Plessix. Madame de Staël: The First Modern Woman. October 2008, Atlas & Co.

Goodden, Angelica. Madame de Staël: The Dangerous Exile. May 2008, Oxford Scholarship Online

Madame de Staël in Wikipedia

Germaine de Staël - the Woman Napoleon Feared from Sheroes of history (blog series)

Amalia Lindegren

Bengtsson, Eva-Lena. Amalia Lindegren: Aspects of a 19th-Century Artist, Woman's Art Journal Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1984 - Winter, 1985)

L. Clark, Linda. Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. 17 Apr 2008, Cambridge University Press

Amalia Lindegren in Wikipedia

Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu

Gabor, Elena. Career as sensemaking for immigrant women engineers. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research 2014, Vol. 8, 113–128

Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu in Wikipedia

Dora Gabe

Genov, Roumen; Baeva, Iskra. Incomprehension of the Nature of the Race Question: Saving the Bulgarian Jews from the Holocaust, Sofiyski Universitet „St. Kliment Ohridski"

Kolev, Yoan. 1983: Dora Gabe - Poetry is in the visible and invisible 

Kovacheva, Adriana (2010): Found in translation: Dora Gabe, Slava Shtiplieva and Anastasia Gancheva in the editorial office of ‘The Polish-Bulgarian Review’. Przekładaniec, 2 (24), pp. 145-162.

Icons of the Bulgarian Literature (Bulgarian) 

Dora Gabe, the poet, whom all men loved (Bulgarian)

Dora Gabe in Wikipedia 

Two female profiles (in the foreground Marianne Preindelsberger), 1881, Helene Schjerfbeck, Finnish National Gallery, CC0
Portrait of Marie Curie, Unknown photographer, Tekniska museet, Public Domain Mark
Portraits of Marie and Pierre Curie, Photogravure after Henri Manuel and Eugene Pirou, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Marie and Pierre Curie, he holding aloft a glowing specimen of radium, 1904, Coloured lithograph after J. M. Price, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Marie Curie - Mobile Military Hospital X-Ray-Unit, ca. 1915, Unknown photographer, Wikimedia Commons after Eve Curie: Madame Curie. S. 329, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Marie Curie and her daughter Irène, 1925, Unknown photographer, Wellcome Collection, CC BY
Portrait of Maria Sibÿlla Merian, Johann Rudolf Schellenburg, Bibliothèque de l'INHA, Public Domain Mark
Tulip, two branches of myrtle and two shells, ca. 1700, Maria Sibylla Merian (attributed to), Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Transformation of a giant peacock moth, 1679, Maria Sibylla Merian, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Vase with Flowers, 1700, Rachel Ruysch, Mauritshuis, Public Domain Mark
A plantation in Suriname, 1707, Dirk Valkenburg, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Scarlet Ibis with an Egg, 1699 - 1700, Maria Sibylla Merian, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Self-portrait, Sofonisba Anguissola, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola, unknown artist, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Asdrubale Bitten by a Crayfish, 1553-1554, Sofonisba Anguissola, Wikimedia Commons after Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Public Domain Mark
Virgin and Child, 1542-1623, Sofonisba Anguissola, Statens Museum for Kunst, CC0
The Chess Game (Portrait of the artist's sisters playing chess), 1555, Sofonisba Anguissola, Wikimedia Commons after National Museum Poznań, Public Domain Mark
Self-portrait, 1554, Sofonisba Anguissola, Kunsthistorisches Museum, In Copyright
Portrait sketch, Sofonisba Anguissola, Bibliothèque nationale de France, No Copyright - Other Known Legal Restrictions
Portrait of Sofonisba, 1624, Anthony van Dyck, Wikimedia Commons after Dulwich Picture Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola, unknown artist, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Mark
Aletta H. Jacobs, c.1880, unknown, Wikimedia Commons after University of Groningen, Public Domain Mark
Petition from 1871 to be admitted to Groningen University, Collection Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Archives, Netherlands, Public Domain Mark
Stem pessary, Germany, 1925-1935, Rauch (company), Science Museum, London, CC BY
Aletta Jacob's pin: "Women’s Suffrage", Unknown, Collection IAV-Atria, Institute on gender equality and women’s history, CC0
Aletta Jacobs, 1919, Isaac Israels, Collection IAV-Atria, Institute on gender equality and women’s history, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Mme de Staël, Marie-Éléonore Godefroid, Wikimedia after Collection Chateau de Versailles, Public Domain Mark
Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, 1749-1802, Ulrica Fredrica Pasch, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Napoleon I as first consul, Per Köhler, Finnish National Gallery, CC0
Journal des Luxus und der Moden, 1797, T 34, Georg Melchior Kraus, Rijksmuseum, Public Domain Mark
Conférence de Madame de Staël [estampe], Philibert-Louis Debucourt, Bibliothèque nationale de France, No Copyright - Other Known Legal Restrictions
Madame de Staël, Unknown creator, Bibliothèque de l'INHA, Public Domain Mark
Breakfast, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Portrait study of young woman, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, CC BY-SA
Study of a Man in Turkish Dress, Amalia Lindegren , Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Italian mother with a child, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Woman with pot on head and child by hand, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, CC BY-SA
Lovisa, 1828-1871, Queen of Sweden, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Sunday Evening in a Farmhouse in Dalarna, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Aktstudie, Amalia Lindegren, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, Public Domain Mark
Amalia Lindegren (1814-1891), artist, painter, Photographer: G. & A. Overbeck, Düsseldorf, Germany, Nationalmuseum, Sweden, CC BY-SA
Eng. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu processing scientific data obtained from laboratory investigations, Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
Eng. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu, when granted the title of Class I Chemist, Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
The engineering licence awarded to Miss Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu, Royal Academy of Technology Berlin, Charlottenburg, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
Eng. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu, volunteer nurse during World War I (1917), Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
The medal of honour awarding certificate for outstanding merits as nurse of the Red Cross. June 1917., Francophone Association in Romania, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
Miss Elisa Leonida in the Royal Technical Academy lab. (Berlin, Charlottenburg, 1913), Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
The graduates of the Royal Technical Academy, Berlin, Charlottenburg: the 1914 class (Elisa Leonida: second row, left), Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, CC0
Eng. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu in laboratory investigating the results of the experiments, 1956, Unknown photographer, National Technical Museum "prof.ing. Dimitrie Leonida", Bucharest, Copyright Not Evaluated
Dora Gabe over a manuscript, Unknown photographer, Dora Gabe Public Library - Dobrich, CC0
Dora Gabe in the late 1920s, Unknown photographer, Dora Gabe Public Library - Dobrich, CC0
Miss Savva and Dora Gabe (on the right). Black Sea Coast, 1926, Unknown photographer, National Literary Museum, Public Domain Mark
Marriage certificate of Dora Gabe and Boyan Penev, 1909, Unknown, Bulgarian Archives State Agency, Public Domain Mark
Dora Gabe's diplomatic identity card, Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bulgarian Archives State Agency, Public Domain Mark
Portrait of Dora Gabe, Dechko Uzunov, Dora Gabe Public Library - Dobrich, CC0
Dora Gabe in front of the portrait of herself by H. Risca, 1980s, Unknown photographer, Dora Gabe Public Library - Dobrich, CC0