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Brood attending by females of the hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on cocoon clusters of its host, Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its effects on reproduction, development and survival

Theoretical models predict that brood guarding may evolve in situations where eggs are costly to produce or when handling times are long. This study reveals that females of the secondary hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena guarded cocoon broods of Cotesia kariyai, a gregarious endoparasitoid. Hyperparasitoid females also monopolized host resources and protected their offspring by driving …