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Increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in human obesity: effects of gut hormones

The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. Impaired vasodilator reactivity has been recognized as an early hemodynamic abnormality in obese patients, but also increased vasoconstrictor tone importantly contributes to their vascular damage. In parti…