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Grub-like larvae of Neuroptera (Insecta): a morphological review of the families Ithonidae and Polystoechotidae and a description of Oliarces clara

First instar larvae of Polystoechotidae sp., and first and older instar larvae of Ithone fusca Newman and Oliarces clara Banks are described; those of the latter species for the first time. The family Ithonidae is unique in Neuroptera in having grub-like C-shaped older instar larvae. Potential morphological synapomorphies of mature larvae of Ithonidae and Polystoechotidae are the mandibles with ex…