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The evolution of sex chromosomes in insects: Differentiation of sex chromosomes in flies and moths

Although a monophyletic group, male (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (WZ/ZZ) sex chromosome systems with a couple of variants like XX/X, Z/ZZ and multiple sex chromosome systems occur in insects. Molecular and morphological differences between X and Y or W and Z range from imperceptible to conspicuous. This article illustrates sex chromosome differentiation mainly in two fly species, Drosophila me…