Emergency money is unofficial money-substitute issued by the state with use limited in space and time. It can only be used in emergency (war, inflation, collapse of the central power), when the national currencies cannot satisfy the needs of money circulation. For example, during the independence war of 1848-49 in Hungary, several cities issued their own currencies that could be used within the city. The ’golden age’ of emergency money issues was during World War I. and the period directly afterwards. Every lager and many restaurants, groceries and factories used this method to maintain money circulation privately. These emergency substitutes could be exchanged for goods and/or services only at the places of their issuers, and were not accepted at any other places.