Sd in ink vertically: "RIXBIRNIE" CRE WHISTLER, Beatrix; (English; 1857-1896) The artist has used pen and ink to create strong hatching, indicating shadow and texture. In order to avoid being judged as an amateur woman painter, Beatrix Whistler exhibited under the pseudonym 'Rix Birnie' (an adaptation of her maiden name, Beatrice Birnie Philip), and called herself 'a pupil of Whistler' when she exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists, 1885-8. The way she has written this signature in a vertical line is rather like a cartouche on a Japanese print. Beatrix Whistler's first husband, E. W. Godwin (1833-1886), architect and designer, used this style of writing on a pair of vases with sgraffito decoration, c. 1877 (Collection Paul Reeves, London; see Soros, Susan Weber, ed., 'E.W. Godwin: Aesthetic Movement Architect and Designer', New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1999, p. 300).
Birnie Philip Gift, 1935 - not lendable