MANU Smith & Rait before 1904 Glasgow Scotland ?The Young Pretender?, ?Bonnie Prince Charlie?, born Rome, Italy, 31st December 1720.
Grandson of James II and eldest son of James Francis Edward Stuart, Prince of Wales (the ?Old Pretender?), Charles was brought up in Rome. Trained for the ultimate goal of reclaiming the British throne he landed in Scotland in August of 1745, raising his standard at Glenfinnan. A number of Highland clans rallied to his cause. He defeated a British force at Prestonpans and set up Court at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. Charles then advanced into England and reached Derby before internal wrangling and superior English forces forced him to retreat northwards again. In April 1746 his army was finally defeated at Culloden Moor. Charles escaped and was hunted as a fugitive for more than five months. The loyal Highlanders never betrayed him and one, Flora Macdonald, famously helped him to escape from the English disguised as her maid Betty Burke.
Charles reached France in September 1746 but was expelled in 1748 under the Second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which stipulated that all members of the House of Stuart were to be driven from France. For the next few year Charles wandered around Europe trying unsuccessfully to win support for his cause. In 1766 he returned to Rome, marrying Louise of Stolberg-Gedern in 1772. In exile Charles became a lonely, drunken old man, abandoned by his wife and with no legitimate issue. He died on January 31st 1788 and was buried in St. Peter?s, Rome.