L.H.16. (old deparmental catalogue number in aluminium paint). MANU Unsigned. circa 1850 Glasgow, Scotland. DES after SANTORIO,Santorio (SANCTORIUS or SANTORIUS) 1612 Italy DES after GALILEI,Galileo. 1593 Padua, Italy. This air-thermoscope was used to demonstrate changes in temperature by the expansion or contraction of air in the upper bulb, which caused the rise and fall of liquid in the tube.