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Can males of Nyctalus noctula successfully mate in their first year?

Young males of Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774) are known to remain immature in the year of their birth in some parts of the species range, but reach maturity in other parts. In the latter case, however, a doubt has been expresses about whether they would be able to mate. We adduce strong evidence that males of the year can really be fertile. In captive noctules, among which there were no old mal…