Europeana presents Pioneers in collaboration with Mariya Gabriel, European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society, a leading campaigner for women in the digital sector. This exhibition is part of Commissioner Mariya Gabriel’s strategy to empower women and increase their participation in the digital economy. 

Throughout history, there have always been women who have overcome the odds to make important contributions to social, economic and technological domains. Many of these stories, however, are not widely known. Europeana, a European Commission initiative as Europe’s digital platform for cultural heritage, provides access to such digitised resources and Pioneers uses that content and seeks to raise awareness of women’s historical contributions to society and provide a platform for the representation of emblematic professional women in Europe. 


Małgorzata Szynkielewska

Sources and further reading

Maria Skłodowska-Curie

Marie Curie in Wikipedia

Marie Curie the Scientist, Marie Curie UK

Davis, Amanda. How Marie Curie Helped Save a Million Soldiers During World War I, February 2016, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 

Maria Sibylla Merian

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Wulf, Andrea. The Woman Who Made Science Beautiful, 2016. The Atlantic.

Etheridge, Kay. Maria Sibylla Merian: The First Ecologist?, 2011. Gettysburg College

Maria Sibylla Merian. Künstlerin und Forscherin aus Frankfurt (video), 2017. Städel Museum

Digital version of Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Gallery with Maria Sibylla Merian's works, Europeana

Sofonisba Anguissola

Fulmer, Betsy. Sofonisba Anguissola: Marvel of Nature, June 2005, Academic Forum 23, Henderson State University

Sofonisba Anguissola in Britannica

Smart History profile of Sofonisba Anguissola

Aletta Jacobs

Aletta Jacobs in Wikipedia

ATRIA, Institute on gender equality and women's history on Aletta Jacobs

Overview of Aletta Jacobs publications (Dutch)

Humanistic Canon: Aletta Jacobs (Dutch)

Feminism in the Netherlands (Wikipedia)

Madame de Staël

Gray, Francine du Plessix. Madame de Staël: The First Modern Woman. October 2008,Atlas & Co.

Goodden, Angelica. Madame de Staël: The Dangerous Exile. May 2008, Oxford Scholarship Online

Madame de Staël in Wikipedia

Germaine de Staël - the Woman Napoleon Feared from Sheroes of history (blog series)

Amalia Lindegren

Bengtsson, Eva-Lena. Amalia Lindegren: Aspects of a 19th-Century Artist, Woman's Art Journal Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1984 - Winter, 1985)

L. Clark, Linda. Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. 17 Apr 2008, Cambridge University Press

Amalia Lindegren in Wikipedia

Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu

Gabor, Elena. Career as sensemaking for immigrant women engineers. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research 2014, Vol. 8, 113–128

Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu in Wikipedia

Dora Gabe

Genov, Roumen; Baeva, Iskra. Incomprehension of the Nature of the Race Question: Saving the Bulgarian Jews from the Holocaust, Sofiyski Universitet „St. Kliment Ohridski"

Kolev, Yoan. 1983: Dora Gabe - Poetry is in the visible and invisible 

Kovacheva, Adriana (2010): Found in translation: Dora Gabe, Slava Shtiplieva and Anastasia Gancheva in the editorial office of ‘The Polish-Bulgarian Review’. Przekładaniec, 2 (24), pp. 145-162.

Icons of the Bulgarian Literature (Bulgarian) 

Dora Gabe, the poet, whom all men loved (Bulgarian)

Dora Gabe in Wikipedia 

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