Fifth class Montenegrin Order of Danilo, plus miniature version
Fifth class Montenegrin Order of Danilo, plus miniature version of the same.
Named for Montenegro's Prince-Bishop Danilo I, this Order was established in 1853 and was awarded for civil as well as military merit. This is the fifth class version of this order and differs in look from the first through fourth class versions of the Order of Danilo. The highest four classes of this Order have a 'patee alisee' cross with four equal sized arms, but the fifth class has a longer descending arm on the cross. Also, the colour of the enamelling of the arms of the cross on the higher four classes is predominantly blue with red and white, but the fifth class Order is mainly black with silver. Both sides have a red enamelled centre circle with writing on both sides. On one side is the Cyrillic text '‘ЗА НЕЗАВИСИМОСТЪ ЦРНЕ ГОРЕ, 1852-3’, which transliterates to 'Za Nezavisimost Crne Gore', and translates to 'For the Independence of Montenegro', with the 1852-3 years covering the year of independence of Montenegro, in 1852, and the establishment of the Order, in 1853. The other side has the Cyrillic text 'ДАНІИЛЪ I. ЦРНОГОРСКІИ КНЯЗЪ', which transliterates as 'Danil I. Crnogorski Knjaz', and which translates to 'Danilo I. Montenegrin Prince'. This Order was awarded partly during the First World War up to early 1916, but there was a hiatus in making such awards after Montenegro had collapsed militarily and politically, and when King Nikola of Montenegro went into permanent exile. One famous recipient of this class of order was French ace pilot, Charles Nungesser, who achieved 42 victories in the air. Shown here are the fifth class Order of Danilo, along with a miniature version.