Apollo, Copernican solar system (detail), 1904, Stanisław Wyspiański, National Museum in Krakow , CC BY

The 20th century saw a proliferation of modernist art movements including Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism and Dada. In this chapter, we’ll see how artists deployed avant-garde styles in the genres of portraiture, landscape and folk art, on a path to total abstraction.