Credits

Leaving Europe: A new life in America tells the story of European emigration to the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. The exhibition, jointly curated by the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) and Europeana, uses photographs, manuscripts, broadsheets, paintings, letters, and other unique materials to chart peoples’ journeys across the European continent and their settlement in the United States. The digital items displayed are from US and European libraries, museums and archives and the accompanying narrative was commissioned specially for the exhibition from U.S. and European experts.

The DPLA and Europeana would like to thank the following institutions for providing the unique content and metadata featured in Leaving Europe: A new life in America:

The (US) National Archives and Records Administration
Harvard University
New York Public Library
University of Minnesota Immigration History Research Center
French National Library - Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane
FylkesFOTOarkivet i Møre og Romsdal
Geffrye Museum
Hadeland Folkemuseum
Haven Amsterdam
International Institute of Social History
Jewish Museum London
Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam
National Gallery or Ireland
National Library of the Netherlands - Meertens Instituut
National Library of the Netherlands - Koninklijke Bibliotheek
National Library of the Netherlands - Nederlands Openluchtmuseum
Sportimonium
The Wellcome Library
Trinity College Dublin
University of California Libraries (archive.org)
Museen der Stadt DresdenContributing institutions to Europeana
Texts, research and compilation by Joan Krizack and Sieger Verhart.

Repository and curation support provided by Maira Liriano, Megan Sniffin-Marinoff, Bill Comstock, Megan Schwenke, Jack Eckert, Daniel Necas, Rachel Howarth, and Pamela Wright.

Special thanks goes to Anna van den Broek for her tireless effort in making this exhibition a reality.

Arrival at Ellis Island [the deck of the ship is filled with emigrants], 1913, Agence Rol. Agence photographique, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Public Domain Mark
An Emigrant Ship, Dublin Bay, Sunset, 1853, Edwin Hayes, National gallery of Ireland, CC BY-NC-ND
White Star Line passenger list,  The saloon passenger list of the White Star Line steamship 'Britannic' for its journey from New York to Liverpool, 27th October 1883. Front cover., Wellcome Library, London, CC BY
The Emigrant's Farewell , First lines: Farewell, my loyal comrades, for from you I must go, / Unto a foreign nation, bewailing my sad woe. , Trinity College Dublin, CC0
German immigrants - their arrival at New York, Isaac John Greenwood Collection, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Climbing into America, Ellis Island, 1905, Hine, Lewis Wickes, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Poëzieplaatje (Poetry Image), Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam inv. nr. 01876, 1909, In Copyright
 Emigrants [sur Ellis Island], une famille de hongrois. (Emigrants [at Ellis Island], an Hungarian family), Agence Rol. Agence photographique, Référence bibliographique : Rol, 35157 1913, Public Domain Mark
Bicycle club, Wilno, Minnesota, A men's bicycle club on the Anton Mazarek farm in Wilno, Minnesota, 1908. L to R: Sylvester Mazarek; Joseph Bukowski; Anton Otto; Joseph Lasnetski; John Guza; Vincent Panek; William Guza; Michael Guza; Adam Guza; Stanley Lasnetski; Harry Mazarek; Anton Mazarek; Andrew Mazarek. Several of the young men belonged to St. John Cantius Church, 1908, In Copyright
  • Title

    Bicycle club, Wilno, Minnesota
  • Creator

    A men's bicycle club on the Anton Mazarek farm in Wilno, Minnesota, 1908. L to R: Sylvester Mazarek; Joseph Bukowski; Anton Otto; Joseph Lasnetski; John Guza; Vincent Panek; William Guza; Michael Guza; Adam Guza; Stanley Lasnetski; Harry Mazarek; Anton Mazarek; Andrew Mazarek. Several of the young men belonged to St. John Cantius Church
  • Source

    1908
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Emigrants [sur Ellis Island], deux gosses d'Italie. (Emigrants [at Ellis Island], two Italian kids), Agence Rol. Agence photographique, Référence bibliographique : Rol, 35148 1913, Public Domain Mark
Shoe shine parlor, Two young men at the Athena Shoe Shine Parlor, New Haven, Connecticut., circa 1911, In Copyright
Portrait, island Hjellan - Portrett, Øya Hjellan 0, Norsk Kulturråd, FylkesFOTOarkivet i Møre og Romsdal, In Copyright
Finnish worker's hall, Circa 1912, Immigration History Research Center Archives (IHRC Archives) , In Copyright
Immigrant party of Swedes, Worcester & Pierce, 1851, Boston NYPL Digital Galery, Public Domain Mark
Minnesota as a Home for Emigrants - Minnesota som Hjem for Emigranter, Norsk Kulturråd Hefte med kartong-permer.  Teknikk: trykket, sydd, skåret  Booklet with carton-binders.  Technique: pressure, sewn, cut 1865, Hadeland Folkemuseum , CC BY-NC-SA
Greetings Card, Raphael Tuck & Sons, 1909, London, Public Domain Mark
Immigrants' first view of America, Jefferys, Charles W. (Charles William), NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
First sight of New York Bay--arrival of a European steamer., Champney, James Well 1877, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery, Harper's weekly : a journal of civilization, Public Domain Mark
Gruppe, Amerika 1920-1940,  Ukjend Kort sendt frå Amerika frå ein Ivar til Hans N. Lilleøren. I teksten står det: 'Er det ikke store tømmerstokker, synes du? Jeg er en af dem, elles er det ukjente.' Denne Ivar er nok ein emigrant frå Vik. 1920 - 1940, Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane, In Copyright
  • Title

    Gruppe, Amerika 1920-1940
  • Creator

    Ukjend Kort sendt frå Amerika frå ein Ivar til Hans N. Lilleøren. I teksten står det: 'Er det ikke store tømmerstokker, synes du? Jeg er en af dem, elles er det ukjente.' Denne Ivar er nok ein emigrant frå Vik. 1920 - 1940
  • Source

    Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Power plant, Power plant, Bay State Street Railway plant, Quincy Point, Massachusetts, 1913, NARA  Media Archive, In Copyright
The green fields of America, First lines: Farewell to the land of shillelagh and shamrock, / Where many a long day in pleasure I spent.   The White Collection contains popular slip ballads printed in Dublin, Cork and Johnstown, which refer to contemporary events including the Crimean War, crime and politics. 1860, Trinity College Dublin , CC0
  • Title

    The green fields of America
  • Creator

    First lines: Farewell to the land of shillelagh and shamrock, / Where many a long day in pleasure I spent. The White Collection contains popular slip ballads printed in Dublin, Cork and Johnstown, which refer to contemporary events including the Crimean War, crime and politics. 1860
  • Source

    Trinity College Dublin
  • Rights

    CC0
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Les Emigrants ,  Pontenier, Auguste (1820-1888). Graveur | Schuler, Théophile. Dessinateur, Bibliothèque nationale de France , Public Domain Mark
Tijdschriftillustratie (Magazine Illustration), Braakensiek, Johan Coenraad, Repository/Location: Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam (collectie J. van Velzen), inv. nr. 07461, In Copyright
 'Men and Women of Mark' newspaper cuttings album, E de Haas, Page 325, 'Men and Women of Mark in Modern Judea' album of newspaper cuttings (c 1892-1911) compiled by E de Haas. Contains 1 cutting with 5 drawings of the Russian atrocities - murdered Jews including a whole family, the Jewish hospital at Odessa, the authorities taking Jewish victims from the hospital to the cemetery, identifying murdered Jews and Jewesses, Jewish shops and boulevard in the Alexander Prospect, Odessa, destroyed by the mob (1905) , In Copyright
  • Title

    'Men and Women of Mark' newspaper cuttings album
  • Creator

    E de Haas
  • Source

    Page 325, 'Men and Women of Mark in Modern Judea' album of newspaper cuttings (c 1892-1911) compiled by E de Haas. Contains 1 cutting with 5 drawings of the Russian atrocities - murdered Jews including a whole family, the Jewish hospital at Odessa, the authorities taking Jewish victims from the hospital to the cemetery, identifying murdered Jews and Jewesses, Jewish shops and boulevard in the Alexander Prospect, Odessa, destroyed by the mob (1905)
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Lied voor vrolijke , Lied voor vrolijke Landverhuizers welke met het Stoomschip DE IJZERE MAN, naar Amerika willen vertrekken. (Song for cheerful emigrants who want to depart to Amerika with the steamship 'DE IJZERE MAN')Daar ligt een prachtig zeekasteel, / Hoera die ijzere man , National Library of the Netherlands - Koninklijke Bibliotheek , Public Domain Mark
  • Title

    Lied voor vrolijke
  • Creator

    Lied voor vrolijke Landverhuizers welke met het Stoomschip DE IJZERE MAN, naar Amerika willen vertrekken. (Song for cheerful emigrants who want to depart to Amerika with the steamship 'DE IJZERE MAN')Daar ligt een prachtig zeekasteel, / Hoera die ijzere man
  • Source

    National Library of the Netherlands - Koninklijke Bibliotheek
  • Rights

    Public Domain
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The modern ark, Bisbee, Ezra; Eytinge, Solomon 1871, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery Harper's weekly : a journal of civilization, Public Domain Mark
Aliens Who Have Been Admitted, Landing in New York at the Barge Office, Regulation of Immigration at the Port of Entry, United States Immigrant Station, New York City c. 1903, Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, 3.2002.459.1, In Copyright
Ferry boat, Ferry boat, the Ellis Island, which is also marked Department of Commerce and Labor, U.S. Immigration Service. 1902 - 1913, NYPL Digital Gallery A calendar of the William Williams collection of photographs of Ellis Island., Public Domain Mark
  • Title

    Ferry boat
  • Creator

    Ferry boat, the Ellis Island, which is also marked Department of Commerce and Labor, U.S. Immigration Service. 1902 - 1913
  • Source

    NYPL Digital Gallery A calendar of the William Williams collection of photographs of Ellis Island.
  • Rights

    Public Domain
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'Gone', a scene in Euston station, Frank Holl 'Gone', a scene in Euston station of a group of women and children left behind as the train taking departing emigrants leaves for Liverpool, oil on board, signed Frank Holl, c.1877, Geffrye Museum , In Copyright
Immigrants' waiting-room, Hamburg, Burns, M. J., NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Examining immigrants' papers, Hamburg, Scribner's magazine.1900, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Russian Jews being examined by a doctor, Russian Jews being examined by a doctor before emigration from Liverpool. Wood engraving, 1891, The Wellcome Library , CC BY
A lamentation on the loss of an emigrant ship,  The White Collection contains popular slip ballads printed in Dublin, Cork and Johnstown which refer to contemporary events including the Crimean War, crime and politics.   You inhabitants of Ireland I hope you will lend an ear, / When you'll hear my tale of woe it will cause you to shed a tear, Trinity College Dublin , Public Domain Mark
Ellis Island, New York., Success Postal Card Co. ca. 191-, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Immigrants In Castle Garden, Shults, A. B. (Albert B.) (1868-1913) 1880, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Immigrants Buying Railroad Tickets on Ellis Island, Department of the Treasury. Public Health Service.	(1912 - 07/01/1939), Online Public Access NARA, Public Domain Mark
Immigrants seated on long benches, Main Hall, U.S. Immigration Station., Williams, William (1862-1947), NYPL Digital Library, Public Domain Mark
Emigrants [sur Ellis Island] attendant d'être examinés (Emigrants [at Ellis Island] awaiting examination), Agence Rol. Agence photographique 1913, French National Library - Bibliothèque Nationale de France http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb404881152  Référence bibliographique : Rol, 35150, Public Domain Mark
Bertillon measurements, J. H. Adams, Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, 3.2002.285.2, Public Domain Mark
Italian Fishermen Mending Nets on a Wharf in San Francisco, California Harbor, Department of Commerce and Labor. Bureau of Fisheries. 1891, NARA Online Public Access, In Copyright
Finnish American farm workers, William Hyrkas, husband of Anna Makela Hyrkas, stands next to a new case threshing machine in Sebeka, Minnesota, 1915. The threshing machine was powered by a gas engine. Hyrkas traveled around the area, threshing for farmers. Charlie Nokua, Mamie Mackie's husband, stands behind the machine, next to a young boy., Immigration History Research Center Archives (IHRCA), In Copyright
  • Title

    Finnish American farm workers
  • Creator

    William Hyrkas, husband of Anna Makela Hyrkas, stands next to a new case threshing machine in Sebeka, Minnesota, 1915. The threshing machine was powered by a gas engine. Hyrkas traveled around the area, threshing for farmers. Charlie Nokua, Mamie Mackie's husband, stands behind the machine, next to a young boy.
  • Source

    Immigration History Research Center Archives (IHRCA)
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Three generations of a Czech immigrant family, On their farm in Montgomery, Minnesota, Media Archive  University of Minnesota, Immigration History Research Center, In Copyright
Italian family in Chicago tenement, Hine, Lewis Wickes (1874-1940), NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Merry Christmas in the tenements., Hambidge, Jay 1897, New York,  NYPL Digital Gallery Century magazine, Public Domain Mark
Market day in Jewish quarter of East Side, New York City, 1912, Hine, Lewis Wickes 1912,  NYPL Digital Gallery , Public Domain Mark
Bearded Irish clam diggers and a matronly companion on a wharf in Boston, Office of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. Division of Statistical Inquiry. 1882 , NARA Online Public Access, In Copyright
Mrs. Larocca making willow plumes in an unlicenced tenement., Department of Commerce and Labor. Children's Bureau.	(1912 - 1913), NARA Online Public Access, In Copyright
French worker making high-grade tapestries, New York City, 1920, Hine, Lewis Wickes 1920, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Iron ore mining, Two miners operating a drill in an underground cavern,  Iron River Michigan., Immigration History Research Center Archives (IHRC Archives) , In Copyright
7th convention of the National Slovak Society, Scholl's Studio, Participants in the 7th convention of the National Slovak Society, held on May 21-26, 1899 in Chicago, Illinois. Included are portraits of the founding and leading members of the Society (established in 1890) such P.V. Rovnianek, A.S. Ambrose, A. Mamatey, M. Feriencik, I. Podkrivacky and others. The convention coinicided with a conference of a number of Slavic organizations held in Chicago on May 21-28, 1899 in which the NSS participated as well to promote the concept of unity among the Slavic peoples in America and also to build relationships with other Slavic nationalities, namely the Croats and Czechs., U Media Archive  Immigration History Research Center, In Copyright
  • Title

    7th convention of the National Slovak Society
  • Creator

    Scholl's Studio, Participants in the 7th convention of the National Slovak Society, held on May 21-26, 1899 in Chicago, Illinois. Included are portraits of the founding and leading members of the Society (established in 1890) such P.V. Rovnianek, A.S. Ambrose, A. Mamatey, M. Feriencik, I. Podkrivacky and others. The convention coinicided with a conference of a number of Slavic organizations held in Chicago on May 21-28, 1899 in which the NSS participated as well to promote the concept of unity among the Slavic peoples in America and also to build relationships with other Slavic nationalities, namely the Croats and Czechs.
  • Source

    U Media Archive Immigration History Research Center
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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School of St. George parish, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., Circa 1925, U Media Archive  Immigration History Research Center, In Copyright
Back yard playground used by workers' children, Boston, 1912, Hine, Lewis Wickes 1912, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
From Immigrant Ship to Citizenship,  North Bennet Street Industrial School," Publicity for Social Work, Leaflets & Folders 1922,  Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, 3.2002.1875.40, In Copyright
Italian draft evaders sent back 1896, New York, Illustrated American, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Around the Piano, Francis E. Clark, Agencies promoting assimilation of the immigrant, imparting American standards to the foreign born., Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, Public Domain Mark
  • Title

    Around the Piano
  • Creator

    Francis E. Clark, Agencies promoting assimilation of the immigrant, imparting American standards to the foreign born.
  • Source

    Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection
  • Rights

    Public Domain
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The anarchist riot in Chicago : A dynamite bomb exploding among the police, Thulstrup, Thure de, Harper's magazine, 1907, New York ,  NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Anarchists' riot in Boston : Morrison I. Swift haranguing the crowd from an elm tree on the Com[mon], Varian, George Illustrated American 1894, New York, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
The Comrade, W. Crane Posters : arranged by artists. 1902, NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Detained Women, J. H. Adams, American (active 1900s) , Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, Public Domain Mark
Diagram showing European immigration between 1885 and 1902, Norris Peters Co. 1902, Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, 3.2002.3534.2, In Copyright
A family of seven sons and one daughter, Ellis Island, Sherman, Augustus F.Augustus Francis) Portraits of immigrants at Ellis Island, New York,  NYPL Digital Gallery, Public Domain Mark
Writing the First Letter Home, Women's Detained Room, Regulation of Immigration at the Port of Entry, J. H. Adams  United States Immigrant Station, New York City 1903, Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection, 3.2002.300.2, In Copyright
A family sits and listens to a letter from emigrants A family sits and listens to a letter from emigrants being read to them by a young man. , Photomechanical reproduction after Thomas Faed A.R.S.A.14th March 1891, https://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/V0038719.html, Public Domain Mark
Coming to America; Returning for a visit, Richardson & Cox Harper's magazine, NYPL, Public Domain Mark
Familie Veenis met zoon uit Amerika (Family Veenis with their son who lives in America), Familie Veenis ca. 1928, De familie Veenis uit Assendelft. De foto is gemaakt bij de overkomst van de zoon met zijn gezin uit Amerika. Moeder Veenis is gekleed in streekdracht., National Library of the Netherlands - Koninklijke Bibliotheek , In Copyright
Portrait Mosbøen 1913-1917 - Portrett, Mosbøen 1913-1917, ohannes Pedersen Øveraas var en av flere emigranter fra Øksendal som ble innkalt til amerikansk krigstjeneste under 1. verdenskrig. Flere av disse falt i kamp. Johannes falt 10.10.1918, nær Sommerance, Meuse-Argonne, Frankrike. Minneplaketten har tilhørt hans søster, Olga P. Øveraas Sjølseth. Olga forsøkte å finne ut hva som hadde skjedd. Her følger avskrifter fra ei avis fra byen Hoquiam, Washington (delvis oversatt): "Johannes Øveraas falt i kamp, hedret. Johannes Øveraas fra denne byen, som ofret det største da han tjenestegjorde som menig i de amerikanske styrkene i oversjøisk tjeneste, ble hedret for tapperhet i henhold til følgende korrespondanse nylig mottatt av hans søster: Kjære frue. Ditt brev av 7. juli 1919 angående din brors død er mottatt. Vi er ikke i stand til å finne..., FylkesFOTOarkivet i Møre og Romsdal, In Copyright
  • Title

    Portrait Mosbøen 1913-1917 - Portrett, Mosbøen 1913-1917
  • Creator

    ohannes Pedersen Øveraas var en av flere emigranter fra Øksendal som ble innkalt til amerikansk krigstjeneste under 1. verdenskrig. Flere av disse falt i kamp. Johannes falt 10.10.1918, nær Sommerance, Meuse-Argonne, Frankrike. Minneplaketten har tilhørt hans søster, Olga P. Øveraas Sjølseth. Olga forsøkte å finne ut hva som hadde skjedd. Her følger avskrifter fra ei avis fra byen Hoquiam, Washington (delvis oversatt): "Johannes Øveraas falt i kamp, hedret. Johannes Øveraas fra denne byen, som ofret det største da han tjenestegjorde som menig i de amerikanske styrkene i oversjøisk tjeneste, ble hedret for tapperhet i henhold til følgende korrespondanse nylig mottatt av hans søster: Kjære frue. Ditt brev av 7. juli 1919 angående din brors død er mottatt. Vi er ikke i stand til å finne...
  • Source

    FylkesFOTOarkivet i Møre og Romsdal
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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The emigrant's return  First lines: He came, the sun shed around, / Its bright meridian rays, The White Collection contains popular slip ballads printed in Dublin, Cork and Johnstown which refer to contemporary events including the Crimean War, crime and politics. 1860, Trinity College Dublin , Public Domain Mark