Jägerhorn, Hunting horn, Friedrich Purrer, Foto: Marion Wenzel, Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA

Introduction

Throughout their history musical instruments have combined their role of sound-producing tools with symbolic and decorative functions, both social and religious. Precious materials, elaborate shapes and decorations have been used in all cultures at different times to confer special nobility on to individual instruments, to make them attractive to collectors or travellers, or sometimes to demonstrate the outstanding skills of the maker while not necessarily serving any specific musical purpose.

The use of ivory and elaborate adornments on instruments in Asia and Africa, for example, has been confirmed since at least the late 15th century. Around the same time, the spread of the first collections of musical instruments in Italy gave a fresh impetus to experimentation with materials and elaborate decorations, as well as unusual shapes and designs that made some instruments unique: organs with spirally-arranged pipes and wind instruments in the shape of animals and monsters. Moreover, the use of precious stones and materials such as ivory, ebony, silver and gold, combined with carvings and paintings, created instruments that became seen as works of art in their own right.

Harpsichord, 1755, Luigi Baillon, [A rare example of a French harpsichord made outside Paris. The case decoration is stunning The outer case is elaborately decorated with chinoiserie scenes, and there is a seascape in the lid depicting Venus and Neptune.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Harpsichord, 1755, Luigi Baillon, [A rare example of a French harpsichord made outside Paris. The case decoration is stunning The outer case is elaborately decorated with chinoiserie scenes, and there is a seascape in the lid depicting Venus and Neptune.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA

Painted Decoration

Painted instruments became common in the European tradition during the late 16th century, but in the countries of the Far East they are documented much earlier. Due to the different shapes and material of instruments, paintings appear with different degrees of importance and detail: from simple geometric decorations, to symbolic colours and shapes that can connect the instrument to a specific nation or tribe, to a social context, or to a specific owner, sometimes through elaborately decorated coats of arms.

From the 17th century, however, a new tradition arose, specifically in the production of European keyboard instruments, whose lids – large and flat- offered an ideal base for elaborate oil paintings. Scenes based on landscapes, architecture, flowers or musical scenes - sometimes mythological subjects related to music such as the myth of Orpheus taming animals with the sound of his lyre – began to appear on these instruments, not only by anonymous painters, but also celebrated and well known artists. The interest and quality of these paintings became such that sometimes only the lid survived, while the rest of the instrument was destroyed through time.

Hand Held French Horn, c.1840, Courtois neveu, [This is a typical orchestral horn of the early nineteenth century with crooks (not shown) to allow it to play in the most common tonalities. It is played with the hand in the bell. The lacquer decoration of the bell was common in France at that time.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Hand Held French Horn, c.1840, Courtois neveu, [This is a typical orchestral horn of the early nineteenth century with crooks (not shown) to allow it to play in the most common tonalities. It is played with the hand in the bell. The lacquer decoration of the bell was common in France at that time.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Clavicorde de Lépante, Unknown, [This sixteenth-century instrument is important both as a very early example of a clavichord and as a beautiful piece of decorative art. A clavichord is a keyboard instrument in which the strings are set into vibration by being hit by a metal blade (tangent) when a key is operated. As with the piano (but unlike the organ and harpsichord), the harder a key is hit the louder the sound produced. Even at its loudest, however, the clavichord is a quiet instrument suited to domestic use and as a practice instrument for musicians.], Cité de la musique, CC BY-NC-SA
Clavicorde de Lépante, Unknown, [This sixteenth-century instrument is important both as a very early example of a clavichord and as a beautiful piece of decorative art. A clavichord is a keyboard instrument in which the strings are set into vibration by being hit by a metal blade (tangent) when a key is operated. As with the piano (but unlike the organ and harpsichord), the harder a key is hit the louder the sound produced. Even at its loudest, however, the clavichord is a quiet instrument suited to domestic use and as a practice instrument for musicians.], Cité de la musique, CC BY-NC-SA
Geigenwerk, 1625 , Raymundo Truchado, [The Geigenwerk is one of the few instruments with both strings and keys capable of producing long and sustained sounds. The strings are rubbed by four parchment-covered metal wheels, which are turned by a crank at the back of the instrument. The musician brings the strings into contact with the turning wheels by pressing the keys of the keyboard. This Geigenwerk was made in Spain and is the only wholly preserved example. The instrument was used until the late 18th century to accompany some services in the Cathedral of Toledo.], Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, In Copyright
Geigenwerk, 1625 , Raymundo Truchado, [The Geigenwerk is one of the few instruments with both strings and keys capable of producing long and sustained sounds. The strings are rubbed by four parchment-covered metal wheels, which are turned by a crank at the back of the instrument. The musician brings the strings into contact with the turning wheels by pressing the keys of the keyboard. This Geigenwerk was made in Spain and is the only wholly preserved example. The instrument was used until the late 18th century to accompany some services in the Cathedral of Toledo.], Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, In Copyright

Sculpted & Engraved

The relationship between musical instruments, players and nature is a recurring theme in mythologies all around the world, and is often represented by instruments entirely or partly sculpted in anthropomorphic (human) or zoomorphic (animal) shapes. While these elements retain a strong symbolic meaning for some cultures, others retain them primarily for decorative purposes. Most commonly the latter occurs in European instruments made between the 14th and the 17th century. This connection also survives in the names that are given to the different parts of the instruments: in string instruments, strings are attached to the “head”, that is connected to the “body” – i.e. the sound box – through the “neck”; in the flute the “head” is the part into which the player blows, the air flows through the “body” and exits through the “foot”, and in drums the skin is also called “head”, and it is stretched over the “body”: there names are often reflected by sculpted decorations representing the same parts.

In addition, sculpted and carved elements were also added to musical instruments (both in European and elsewhere) for purely decorative purposes, usually on parts that have no impact on sound production such as stands and the outer side of wind instruments.

(left) Closed cembalo, 1697, Carlo Grimaldi, [The very simple, thin-walled harpsichord itself rests - typical for Italian instruments - on a highly decorated painted case which itself stands on a sumptuously carved, later Rokoko stand. This instrument was most likely used as a direction harpsichord in an opera house. Range: G1/A1-c3. String length c2: 283 mm. Registers: 8'8], Germanisches Nationalmuseum , CC BY-SA | (right) Open cembalo, 1697, Carlo Grimaldi, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Ivory horn,  Anonymous Benin sculptor, [African horn with a side-blown mouthpiece, made in ivory and bronze. Richly sculpted and engraved, it is a part of a set of two horns, respenting respectivally the male and the female.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Ivory horn, Anonymous Benin sculptor, [African horn with a side-blown mouthpiece, made in ivory and bronze. Richly sculpted and engraved, it is a part of a set of two horns, respenting respectivally the male and the female.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Jägerhorn, Hunting horn, Friedrich Purrer, Foto: Marion Wenzel, [Hunting horn, probably from a royal curiosity cabinet. Made of the horn of an aurochs (wild ox) and engraved artfully. There are 2 friezes, one showing hunting scenes, the other one showing four medallions, two of them containing female portraits.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
Jägerhorn, Hunting horn, Friedrich Purrer, Foto: Marion Wenzel, [Hunting horn, probably from a royal curiosity cabinet. Made of the horn of an aurochs (wild ox) and engraved artfully. There are 2 friezes, one showing hunting scenes, the other one showing four medallions, two of them containing female portraits.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA

Precious Materials

The choice of materials for the construction of musical instruments was traditionally established on the basis of considerations of sound quality, durability and easy availability in the area of production. Exceptions to these rules, however, appeared as soon as instruments became interesting as objects in themselves and not just as sound-producing tools. In this case precious materials such as ivory, tortoiseshell, hard stones and noble metals such as silver and gold appeared either for elaborate inlays and decorations applied on the instruments, or entirely substituting the traditional materials in some of its components.

While ivory tusks were used for the production of oliphants (a type of hunting horn) as early as the Middle Ages, the same material began to be used in the 16th century for the production of lutes, guitars and “woodwind” instruments such as recorders, flutes and cornetts. Around the same time, tropical woods also appeared in the construction of lutes and later in that of keyboard instruments and woodwinds. Trumpets in silver and gold are also known to have been made in Nürnberg as early as the 16th century.

The choice of precious materials only improved the sound of the instrument in a few cases (a rare exception from the 20th century seems to be the use of platinum in the construction of flutes); usually the sound is hardly affected by these variations and sometimes the sounding capacity of the instrument were heavily impaired by the choice – as, for example, in the case of instruments entirely made out of marble – highlighting their role of decorative objects over that of musical ones.

Violin made of aluminum, Heinrich Wachwitz, [The body of this violin consists of sheet Aluminium. The light metal is known from 1808 on only. During the first half of the 19th century, it was more expensive then gold. At the time this violin was constructed, the industrial production of Aluminium was in place, but it was still considered as precious material. From a acoustical point of view, however, it is of no use for violin making.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Violin made of aluminum, Heinrich Wachwitz, [The body of this violin consists of sheet Aluminium. The light metal is known from 1808 on only. During the first half of the 19th century, it was more expensive then gold. At the time this violin was constructed, the industrial production of Aluminium was in place, but it was still considered as precious material. From a acoustical point of view, however, it is of no use for violin making.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Royal drum of the Kuba people, Unknown, [Cylindrical drum, part of the regalia of the Nyimi, king of the Kuba people. Kuba is a pre-colonial Central African state in the south east of what is today the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Royal drum of the Kuba people, Unknown, [Cylindrical drum, part of the regalia of the Nyimi, king of the Kuba people. Kuba is a pre-colonial Central African state in the south east of what is today the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Glastrompete, Unknown, [A single coil glass tube that runs cylindrically in the first half and conically in the second half; for aesthetic reasons the tube has been twisted.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
Glastrompete, Unknown, [A single coil glass tube that runs cylindrically in the first half and conically in the second half; for aesthetic reasons the tube has been twisted.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA