Credits

The material for this is exhibition is presented by the nine of the eleven partner museums of the MIMO project:
- University of Edinburgh, UK (lead partner)
- Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Deutschland
- Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, Deutschland
- Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Tervuren, België
- Associazione "Amici del Museo degli Strumenti Musicali", Firenze, Italia
- Cité de la musique, Paris, France
- Muziekinstrumentenmuseum, Brussel, België
- Ethnologisches Museum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Deutschland
- Musikmuseet, Stockholm, Sverige

Editorial work by Cité de la musique in Paris and University of Edinburgh.

Produced in association with Europeana.

The MIMO project is co-funded by the European Union, through the eContentplus programme.

Harpsichord, 1755, Luigi Baillon, [A rare example of a French harpsichord made outside Paris. The case decoration is stunning The outer case is elaborately decorated with chinoiserie scenes, and there is a seascape in the lid depicting Venus and Neptune.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Harpsichord, 1755
  • Creator

    Luigi Baillon, [A rare example of a French harpsichord made outside Paris. The case decoration is stunning The outer case is elaborately decorated with chinoiserie scenes, and there is a seascape in the lid depicting Venus and Neptune.]
  • Source

    University of Edinburgh
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Hand Held French Horn, c.1840, Courtois neveu, [This is a typical orchestral horn of the early nineteenth century with crooks (not shown) to allow it to play in the most common tonalities. It is played with the hand in the bell. The lacquer decoration of the bell was common in France at that time.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Hand Held French Horn, c.1840
  • Creator

    Courtois neveu, [This is a typical orchestral horn of the early nineteenth century with crooks (not shown) to allow it to play in the most common tonalities. It is played with the hand in the bell. The lacquer decoration of the bell was common in France at that time.]
  • Source

    University of Edinburgh
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Clavicorde de Lépante, Unknown, [This sixteenth-century instrument is important both as a very early example of a clavichord and as a beautiful piece of decorative art. A clavichord is a keyboard instrument in which the strings are set into vibration by being hit by a metal blade (tangent) when a key is operated. As with the piano (but unlike the organ and harpsichord), the harder a key is hit the louder the sound produced. Even at its loudest, however, the clavichord is a quiet instrument suited to domestic use and as a practice instrument for musicians.], Cité de la musique, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Clavicorde de Lépante
  • Creator

    Unknown, [This sixteenth-century instrument is important both as a very early example of a clavichord and as a beautiful piece of decorative art. A clavichord is a keyboard instrument in which the strings are set into vibration by being hit by a metal blade (tangent) when a key is operated. As with the piano (but unlike the organ and harpsichord), the harder a key is hit the louder the sound produced. Even at its loudest, however, the clavichord is a quiet instrument suited to domestic use and as a practice instrument for musicians.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Geigenwerk, 1625 , Raymundo Truchado, [The Geigenwerk is one of the few instruments with both strings and keys capable of producing long and sustained sounds. The strings are rubbed by four parchment-covered metal wheels, which are turned by a crank at the back of the instrument. The musician brings the strings into contact with the turning wheels by pressing the keys of the keyboard. This Geigenwerk was made in Spain and is the only wholly preserved example. The instrument was used until the late 18th century to accompany some services in the Cathedral of Toledo.], Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, In Copyright
  • Title

    Geigenwerk, 1625
  • Creator

    Raymundo Truchado, [The Geigenwerk is one of the few instruments with both strings and keys capable of producing long and sustained sounds. The strings are rubbed by four parchment-covered metal wheels, which are turned by a crank at the back of the instrument. The musician brings the strings into contact with the turning wheels by pressing the keys of the keyboard. This Geigenwerk was made in Spain and is the only wholly preserved example. The instrument was used until the late 18th century to accompany some services in the Cathedral of Toledo.]
  • Source

    Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Closed cembalo, 1697, Carlo Grimaldi, [The very simple, thin-walled harpsichord itself rests - typical for Italian instruments - on a highly decorated painted case which itself stands on a sumptuously carved, later Rokoko stand. This instrument was most likely used as a direction harpsichord in an opera house. Range: G1/A1-c3. String length c2: 283 mm. Registers: 8'8], Germanisches Nationalmuseum , CC BY-SA
  • Title

    Closed cembalo, 1697
  • Creator

    Carlo Grimaldi, [The very simple, thin-walled harpsichord itself rests - typical for Italian instruments - on a highly decorated painted case which itself stands on a sumptuously carved, later Rokoko stand. This instrument was most likely used as a direction harpsichord in an opera house. Range: G1/A1-c3. String length c2: 283 mm. Registers: 8'8]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • Rights

    CC BY-SA
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Open cembalo, 1697, Carlo Grimaldi, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Ivory horn,  Anonymous Benin sculptor, [African horn with a side-blown mouthpiece, made in ivory and bronze. Richly sculpted and engraved, it is a part of a set of two horns, respenting respectivally the male and the female.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Ivory horn
  • Creator

    Anonymous Benin sculptor, [African horn with a side-blown mouthpiece, made in ivory and bronze. Richly sculpted and engraved, it is a part of a set of two horns, respenting respectivally the male and the female.]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Jägerhorn, Hunting horn, Friedrich Purrer, Foto: Marion Wenzel, [Hunting horn, probably from a royal curiosity cabinet. Made of the horn of an aurochs (wild ox) and engraved artfully. There are 2 friezes, one showing hunting scenes, the other one showing four medallions, two of them containing female portraits.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Jägerhorn, Hunting horn
  • Creator

    Friedrich Purrer, Foto: Marion Wenzel, [Hunting horn, probably from a royal curiosity cabinet. Made of the horn of an aurochs (wild ox) and engraved artfully. There are 2 friezes, one showing hunting scenes, the other one showing four medallions, two of them containing female portraits.]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Violin made of aluminum, Heinrich Wachwitz, [The body of this violin consists of sheet Aluminium. The light metal is known from 1808 on only. During the first half of the 19th century, it was more expensive then gold. At the time this violin was constructed, the industrial production of Aluminium was in place, but it was still considered as precious material. From a acoustical point of view, however, it is of no use for violin making.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Violin made of aluminum
  • Creator

    Heinrich Wachwitz, [The body of this violin consists of sheet Aluminium. The light metal is known from 1808 on only. During the first half of the 19th century, it was more expensive then gold. At the time this violin was constructed, the industrial production of Aluminium was in place, but it was still considered as precious material. From a acoustical point of view, however, it is of no use for violin making.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Royal drum of the Kuba people, Unknown, [Cylindrical drum, part of the regalia of the Nyimi, king of the Kuba people. Kuba is a pre-colonial Central African state in the south east of what is today the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Royal drum of the Kuba people
  • Creator

    Unknown, [Cylindrical drum, part of the regalia of the Nyimi, king of the Kuba people. Kuba is a pre-colonial Central African state in the south east of what is today the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Glastrompete, Unknown, [A single coil glass tube that runs cylindrically in the first half and conically in the second half; for aesthetic reasons the tube has been twisted.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Glastrompete
  • Creator

    Unknown, [A single coil glass tube that runs cylindrically in the first half and conically in the second half; for aesthetic reasons the tube has been twisted.]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Demilune trumpet, early 19th century , Anonymous, [A natural trumpet made in half-moon shape so that the player's hand can be placed in the bell in playing to lower the pitch of the natural notes.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Octobasse , Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, [This gigantic instrument, almost 3.50m high, is the most spectacular achievement of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875), whose workshop dominated the development and manufacture of bowed string instruments in the mid nineteenth century. Berlioz was one of the few composers to write for the instrument. Most notably it was used during the performance of his Te Deum at the inaugural concert of the Exposition Universelle, held in Paris in 1855. The octobass didn't descend more than a third below the double bass of the time but it had a much more powerful sound.], Cité de la musique, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Octobasse
  • Creator

    Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, [This gigantic instrument, almost 3.50m high, is the most spectacular achievement of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875), whose workshop dominated the development and manufacture of bowed string instruments in the mid nineteenth century. Berlioz was one of the few composers to write for the instrument. Most notably it was used during the performance of his Te Deum at the inaugural concert of the Exposition Universelle, held in Paris in 1855. The octobass didn't descend more than a third below the double bass of the time but it had a much more powerful sound.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Büchsentrompete , Günther Kühnel, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
Trompe de chasse contrebasse, 1900  , Millereau, [The unusual feature of this natural horn is its unbroken tube length of over nine metres. It is pitched in 28-ft D. It was intended to add a deep notes to an ensemble of French hunting horns (trompes de chasse).], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Violino-Harpa, 1873, Zach Thomas, Cité De La Musique, In Copyright
Spinett, 1693, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [The unique instrument is a fantastic example of the creative powers of Bartolomeo Cristofori and was made a few years before his invention of the pianoforte. It blends ingenious design and technical solutions with virtually unsurpassable craftsmanship. With this instrument, he managed to combine the benefits of the harpsichord (use of a double course, long bass scale) with the more intimate shape of a spinet in a visually pleasing form. Cristofori only built two known models of this type, a harpsichord in 1690 and the instrument described here in 1693. Both instruments were made for Ferdinand de Medici, the eldest son of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III. de Medici.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Spinett, 1693
  • Creator

    Bartolomeo Cristofori, [The unique instrument is a fantastic example of the creative powers of Bartolomeo Cristofori and was made a few years before his invention of the pianoforte. It blends ingenious design and technical solutions with virtually unsurpassable craftsmanship. With this instrument, he managed to combine the benefits of the harpsichord (use of a double course, long bass scale) with the more intimate shape of a spinet in a visually pleasing form. Cristofori only built two known models of this type, a harpsichord in 1690 and the instrument described here in 1693. Both instruments were made for Ferdinand de Medici, the eldest son of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III. de Medici.]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Double-bell euphonium, 1913, Buescher, [The fifth valve switches the windway to the smaller bell, allowing the player to change from the sound of a euphonium to something like the sound of a trombone.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Likembe with pick up element, Kabongo Tshisense, [Electric bass likembe in the tradition of the Luba people (Kasai - DR Congo) and used by the Kasai Allstars, the famous musical collective based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The likembe is made from a wooden board to which staggered metal keys are attached.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Likembe with pick up element
  • Creator

    Kabongo Tshisense, [Electric bass likembe in the tradition of the Luba people (Kasai - DR Congo) and used by the Kasai Allstars, the famous musical collective based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The likembe is made from a wooden board to which staggered metal keys are attached.]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Set of vessel flutes/pigeonpipe, 1905, Unknown, [This odd looking instrument has an even more curious purpose, as it is a pipe that is fastened to a pigeon's back and which produces a whistling sound when the bird flies. The custom originates in ancient China. It is thought that the birds with whistles were used to keep flocks of domestic pigeons together and to deter hawks and other predators.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Set of vessel flutes/pigeonpipe, 1905
  • Creator

    Unknown, [This odd looking instrument has an even more curious purpose, as it is a pipe that is fastened to a pigeon's back and which produces a whistling sound when the bird flies. The custom originates in ancient China. It is thought that the birds with whistles were used to keep flocks of domestic pigeons together and to deter hawks and other predators.]
  • Source

    Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Trombone à pistons, 1876, Adolphe Sax, [The trombone with seven bells, designed by Adolphe Sax, is as much a piece of sculpture as a musical instrument. In fact, it is simply the logical conclusion of applying the principle of one air column for each fundamental note. With Sax's invention, the trombone slide was no longer necessary, as each valve corresponds to a slide position.], Musical Instruments Museum, Brussels, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Trombone à pistons, 1876
  • Creator

    Adolphe Sax, [The trombone with seven bells, designed by Adolphe Sax, is as much a piece of sculpture as a musical instrument. In fact, it is simply the logical conclusion of applying the principle of one air column for each fundamental note. With Sax's invention, the trombone slide was no longer necessary, as each valve corresponds to a slide position.]
  • Source

    Musical Instruments Museum, Brussels
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Buccin trombone, c.1840, Anonymous, [Trombones with dragon's-head bells were used in bands in France, Belgium and Italy in the early 19th century. This model was called a "buccin" trombone], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Vièle "huka banam", Anonymous, [This amazing anthropomorphic instrument originates from the Santal population in north-east India. The male character (probably a representation of Vaishnava statuary) and the base are carved from a block of wood. The thorax and abdomen of the figure were hollowed out and covered with a skin pegged around the edges The Huka Banam fiddle has practically disappeared today, the Santal being integrated within Indian society. It was traditionally played by wandering beggars.], Cité de la musique, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Vièle "huka banam"
  • Creator

    Anonymous, [This amazing anthropomorphic instrument originates from the Santal population in north-east India. The male character (probably a representation of Vaishnava statuary) and the base are carved from a block of wood. The thorax and abdomen of the figure were hollowed out and covered with a skin pegged around the edges The Huka Banam fiddle has practically disappeared today, the Santal being integrated within Indian society. It was traditionally played by wandering beggars.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Harpe anthropomorphe, Anonymous maker [Anthropomorphic harp of a set of two, the one being "male", the other "female".], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Viola d'amore, Anonymous [Since love is blind, the head of a viol d'amore is often a blindfolded head.], University of Edinburgh, CC BY-NC-SA
Flûte à conduit, Anonymous, [This amazing flute is carved from sedimentary stone, a dark clay unique to Graham Island, the largest of the Queen Charlotte Islands, an archipelago off the coast of British Columbia. In the early 19th century it was traditional for the Haida Indians to use stone pipes for smoking rituals at funerals. When they came into contact with European sailors, they diversified their craft to produce objects for foreign trade - including recorders to meet the tastes of the Victorian period.], Cité de la musique / Claude Germain, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Flûte à conduit
  • Creator

    Anonymous, [This amazing flute is carved from sedimentary stone, a dark clay unique to Graham Island, the largest of the Queen Charlotte Islands, an archipelago off the coast of British Columbia. In the early 19th century it was traditional for the Haida Indians to use stone pipes for smoking rituals at funerals. When they came into contact with European sailors, they diversified their craft to produce objects for foreign trade - including recorders to meet the tastes of the Victorian period.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Claude Germain
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Madaku, Modeku , Zande population, [The sound box of this lamellophone is made from the complete shell of a tortoise. Seven lamellae of various lengths made of raffia vinifera lie on two wooden combs on the belly of the tortoise and are tightened in the middle with vegetable fibres.  The history of the lamellophone in the Congo is closely linked to colonisation. The instrument was played mostly by the bearers who accompanied expeditions and trade missions, and later by labourers looking for work in mines, plantations, harbours and cities. The lamellophone was a way of passing the time on the long marches and made walking more agreeable. 'The instrument carries you', as the Congolese say.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, In Copyright
  • Title

    Madaku, Modeku
  • Creator

    Zande population, [The sound box of this lamellophone is made from the complete shell of a tortoise. Seven lamellae of various lengths made of raffia vinifera lie on two wooden combs on the belly of the tortoise and are tightened in the middle with vegetable fibres. The history of the lamellophone in the Congo is closely linked to colonisation. The instrument was played mostly by the bearers who accompanied expeditions and trade missions, and later by labourers looking for work in mines, plantations, harbours and cities. The lamellophone was a way of passing the time on the long marches and made walking more agreeable. 'The instrument carries you', as the Congolese say.]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Tambour à fente en forme d'antilope, Unknown, [This slit drum in the shape of an antelope is crafted from a single piece of wood. Although it was made more than a hundred years ago, it is still playable and sounds very good.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Shawm, 1914, Unknown, [Oboe with conical bore and fingerholes, ending in a dragon mask.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
Finial, Anonymous, [Although the common scroll was most often used, there were occasionally makers who would carve finials when requested for violins and other bowed string instruments, 18th or 19th century.], University of Edinburgh, Copyright Not Evaluated
  • Title

    Finial
  • Creator

    Anonymous, [Although the common scroll was most often used, there were occasionally makers who would carve finials when requested for violins and other bowed string instruments, 18th or 19th century.]
  • Source

    University of Edinburgh
  • Rights

    Copyright Not Evaluated
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Vièle "sorud", Jan Mohammad [This fiddle is carved with a unique design from a single piece of wood from the tecomella undulata tree, a species found in Thar Desert region of northwest and western India. The instrument belongs to the sarinda family, which is in widespread use from Iran to the eastern borders of Bengal. The seven thin metal strings placed under the playing strings resonate in sympathy and enrich the timbre of the instrument when the main strings are bowed. Depending on the desired musical style, the instrument is played with a bow with an appropriate thickness of horsehair. The Baluchistan Sorud is mainly played by professional musicians who perform a repertoire composed of mystical Sufi songs. It is also used solo in ritual ceremonies of exorcism and healing.], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Vièle "sorud"
  • Creator

    Jan Mohammad [This fiddle is carved with a unique design from a single piece of wood from the tecomella undulata tree, a species found in Thar Desert region of northwest and western India. The instrument belongs to the sarinda family, which is in widespread use from Iran to the eastern borders of Bengal. The seven thin metal strings placed under the playing strings resonate in sympathy and enrich the timbre of the instrument when the main strings are bowed. Depending on the desired musical style, the instrument is played with a bow with an appropriate thickness of horsehair. The Baluchistan Sorud is mainly played by professional musicians who perform a repertoire composed of mystical Sufi songs. It is also used solo in ritual ceremonies of exorcism and healing.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Shofar, Unknown, [The shofar horn, traditionally that of a ram, is blown in synagogues during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.], Musik&Teatermuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
Bull roarer, Anonymous maker [The bull roarer is an ancient ritual musical instrument which dates back to the Paleolithic period. It is found in Europe, Asia, the Indian sub-continent, Africa, the Americas, and Australia. The bull roarer represents the voice of ancestors.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver , CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Bull roarer
  • Creator

    Anonymous maker [The bull roarer is an ancient ritual musical instrument which dates back to the Paleolithic period. It is found in Europe, Asia, the Indian sub-continent, Africa, the Americas, and Australia. The bull roarer represents the voice of ancestors.]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, Anonymous maker from the lower Kongo region [Royal drum of the Kingdom of Loango, a pre-colonial African state from approximately the 15th to the 19th century in what is now the Republic of Congo.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, CC BY-NC-SA
Sleigh bells, 1880/1890, Unknown, [These sleigh bells were mounted on a horse collar for winter sleigh rides in the countryside. The ringing bells warned pedestrians of an approaching sledge gliding silently in the snow. They were also a form or personalisation for their owner, a Franconian country-nobleman. The frame is made of brass, originally silver-plated, and the bells of bell-metal, a hard alloy used for making bells. The decorative feather bushes are made from horsehair coloured in the Franconian red and white.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum , CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Sleigh bells, 1880/1890
  • Creator

    Unknown, [These sleigh bells were mounted on a horse collar for winter sleigh rides in the countryside. The ringing bells warned pedestrians of an approaching sledge gliding silently in the snow. They were also a form or personalisation for their owner, a Franconian country-nobleman. The frame is made of brass, originally silver-plated, and the bells of bell-metal, a hard alloy used for making bells. The decorative feather bushes are made from horsehair coloured in the Franconian red and white.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Xylophone Kidimba, Anonymous Luba maker [Xylophone with nine bars, the lowest sounds being repeated an octave higher. Although xylophones normally belong to chiefs, they can also be played during ritual ceremonies], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Xylophone Kidimba
  • Creator

    Anonymous Luba maker [Xylophone with nine bars, the lowest sounds being repeated an octave higher. Although xylophones normally belong to chiefs, they can also be played during ritual ceremonies]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren/ Jo Van de Vyver
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Dhah / Drum, Unknown, [Double-headed barrel drum of the indigenous Newar people, the creators of the historical civilisation of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. It is played with a stick on the left and with the hand on the right. It can be used as a processional or a solo instrument.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Dhah / Drum
  • Creator

    Unknown, [Double-headed barrel drum of the indigenous Newar people, the creators of the historical civilisation of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. It is played with a stick on the left and with the hand on the right. It can be used as a processional or a solo instrument.]
  • Source

    Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Naturtrompete, Johann Leonhard III Ehe, [This natural trumpet comes from a set of three identically made instruments. Originally, the trumpets were part of the inventory of a church in Weiden in der Oberpfalz, about 100 km away from Nuremberg. They were probably used for the musical accompaniment at events such as the ordinations of priests, baptisms and weddings.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Naturtrompete
  • Creator

    Johann Leonhard III Ehe, [This natural trumpet comes from a set of three identically made instruments. Originally, the trumpets were part of the inventory of a church in Weiden in der Oberpfalz, about 100 km away from Nuremberg. They were probably used for the musical accompaniment at events such as the ordinations of priests, baptisms and weddings.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Messgeläut, Unknown, [These altar bells (sanctus bells) are used in a Catholic Mass to announce the consecration of the wine and bread into the blood and body of Christ. This custom, in which altar boys sound two different rings, is no longer widely practiced. Brass instrument with a central part and four corner towers; the covering of the central part and each of the four corner towers is decorated with a flower, the frame with roman arches; riveted on to the handle is the decoration with ears of corn and pine cones; in the central part and each of the corner towers there is a small bell with tulip-shaped curved ribbing; every bell has an iron clapper which is thickened on the underside.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Messgeläut
  • Creator

    Unknown, [These altar bells (sanctus bells) are used in a Catholic Mass to announce the consecration of the wine and bread into the blood and body of Christ. This custom, in which altar boys sound two different rings, is no longer widely practiced. Brass instrument with a central part and four corner towers; the covering of the central part and each of the four corner towers is decorated with a flower, the frame with roman arches; riveted on to the handle is the decoration with ears of corn and pine cones; in the central part and each of the corner towers there is a small bell with tulip-shaped curved ribbing; every bell has an iron clapper which is thickened on the underside.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Mégaphone, Unknown, [This vamp horn, which probably comes from Bwende in the Republic of Congo is used during funerals. It represents the deceased person and it is held upwards. The sound hole is on the back side. It amplifies the whispering, singing or shouting by a member of the mourning clan.], Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Copyright Not Evaluated
  • Title

    Mégaphone
  • Creator

    Unknown, [This vamp horn, which probably comes from Bwende in the Republic of Congo is used during funerals. It represents the deceased person and it is held upwards. The sound hole is on the back side. It amplifies the whispering, singing or shouting by a member of the mourning clan.]
  • Source

    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren
  • Rights

    Copyright Not Evaluated
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Trompettes droites, 1879, Adolphe Sax, [These trumpets come from the brass band of the Paris Opera which was directed by the inventor and maker Adolphe Sax from 1847 to 1892. They were specially made for first French performances of Verdi's opera Aïda in 1876 at the Theatre des Italiens and in 1880 and the Opéra de Paris. These trumpets were designed to comply with the wishes of Verdi, who wanted the instruments on stage to be look like ancient natural trumpets, with the valves hidden as far as possible.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Trompettes droites, 1879
  • Creator

    Adolphe Sax, [These trumpets come from the brass band of the Paris Opera which was directed by the inventor and maker Adolphe Sax from 1847 to 1892. They were specially made for first French performances of Verdi's opera Aïda in 1876 at the Theatre des Italiens and in 1880 and the Opéra de Paris. These trumpets were designed to comply with the wishes of Verdi, who wanted the instruments on stage to be look like ancient natural trumpets, with the valves hidden as far as possible.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Violoncello, 1690, Antonio Stradivari, [Stradivari adopted several models and sizes for his cellos during his activity. This instrument is one of the only three that survive with the original very large proportions that he adopted in his early production. The large size of the soundbox allowed a deeper tone in the bass, and was later abandoned probably due to innovations in the making of strings.It was made in 1690 as a gift to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713), and was part of quintet formed by two violins (one surviving in Rome, Accademia di S. Cecilia), an alto viola (now in Washington, Library of Congress) and a tenor viola (Florence, Collezione Cherubini).A rare early document survives about the sound of this instrument: it is a letter written as soon as the instruments were delivered stating that «all the virtuosi [of the gran-ducal court] […] are of the same mind in approving them as perfect, but above all speaking of the violoncello they frankly confess they have never heard a more pleasing or more sonorous one.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Violoncello, 1690
  • Creator

    Antonio Stradivari, [Stradivari adopted several models and sizes for his cellos during his activity. This instrument is one of the only three that survive with the original very large proportions that he adopted in his early production. The large size of the soundbox allowed a deeper tone in the bass, and was later abandoned probably due to innovations in the making of strings.It was made in 1690 as a gift to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713), and was part of quintet formed by two violins (one surviving in Rome, Accademia di S. Cecilia), an alto viola (now in Washington, Library of Congress) and a tenor viola (Florence, Collezione Cherubini).A rare early document survives about the sound of this instrument: it is a letter written as soon as the instruments were delivered stating that «all the virtuosi [of the gran-ducal court] […] are of the same mind in approving them as perfect, but above all speaking of the violoncello they frankly confess they have never heard a more pleasing or more sonorous one.]
  • Source

    Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Guitare, 1711?, Antonio Stradivari, [This guitar came from the workshop of the great violin maker Stradivari in Cremona in 1711. It is similar in form to other Cremonese guitars, and follows the surviving paper patterns used in Stradivari’s workshop. It is a significant example of the aesthetic developed by Stradivari in the field of plucked string instruments. It is lightly built of cypress wood, with a deep sound particularly suitable for accompaniment] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Guitare, 1711?
  • Creator

    Antonio Stradivari, [This guitar came from the workshop of the great violin maker Stradivari in Cremona in 1711. It is similar in form to other Cremonese guitars, and follows the surviving paper patterns used in Stradivari’s workshop. It is a significant example of the aesthetic developed by Stradivari in the field of plucked string instruments. It is lightly built of cypress wood, with a deep sound particularly suitable for accompaniment]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Violino piccolo, Antonio Stradivari, [The body of the beautiful instrument bears typical characteristics of Stradivari's master hand, e. g. the form of the f-holes. Bottom and ribs are made of sycamore, the table is made of spruce. The neck, which is too long in comparison to the body, the fingerboard and the lower part of the pegbox are renewed, however, the scroll is probably origina], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Violino piccolo
  • Creator

    Antonio Stradivari, [The body of the beautiful instrument bears typical characteristics of Stradivari's master hand, e. g. the form of the f-holes. Bottom and ribs are made of sycamore, the table is made of spruce. The neck, which is too long in comparison to the body, the fingerboard and the lower part of the pegbox are renewed, however, the scroll is probably origina]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Clavecin à double clavier combiné à un virginal, 1619, Ioannes Ruckers, [One of the most curious instruments to have come out of the Ruckers workshop is undoubtedly this harpsichord with virginal. The rectangular sound-box houses both a two-manual harpsichord and a small virginal that is set on the curved side of the larger instrument. In accordance with Ruckers family tradition, the sides of the box are decorated with printed strips of paper and with depictions of sea horses, as well as stylized motifs.], Musical Instruments Museum, Brussels, In Copyright
  • Title

    Clavecin à double clavier combiné à un virginal, 1619
  • Creator

    Ioannes Ruckers, [One of the most curious instruments to have come out of the Ruckers workshop is undoubtedly this harpsichord with virginal. The rectangular sound-box houses both a two-manual harpsichord and a small virginal that is set on the curved side of the larger instrument. In accordance with Ruckers family tradition, the sides of the box are decorated with printed strips of paper and with depictions of sea horses, as well as stylized motifs.]
  • Source

    Musical Instruments Museum, Brussels
  • Rights

    In Copyright
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Virginal, Ioannes Ruckers, [In a former restoration the compass was extended to C-c3 chromatically (49 keys). When the museum acquired the instrument, the compass was restored to the original with short octave C/E-c3 (45 keys). The original left part of the front and a part of the soundboard have been lost and have been replaced. The gilt rose shows a harp-playing angel between the letters “I R”.], Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Virginal
  • Creator

    Ioannes Ruckers, [In a former restoration the compass was extended to C-c3 chromatically (49 keys). When the museum acquired the instrument, the compass was restored to the original with short octave C/E-c3 (45 keys). The original left part of the front and a part of the soundboard have been lost and have been replaced. The gilt rose shows a harp-playing angel between the letters “I R”.]
  • Source

    Musikmuseet, Stockholm
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Harpsichord Red, Ioannes Ruckers, [Apart from the soundboard and perhaps the lid, the decoration dates from various periods after 1637. The painting on the wrestplank and the treble part of the soundboard is modern. The outside of the case, the keywell and the soundwell above the soundboard are decorated with English eighteenth-century lacquer work with a vermilion red ground and gold-coloured bronze powder vinework decoration. The latter has been highlighted with pen work and sepia wash. The inside of the lid flap has an anonymous seventeenth-century Flemish painting of St Cecilia playing the organ 1637], University of Edinburgh , CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Harpsichord Red
  • Creator

    Ioannes Ruckers, [Apart from the soundboard and perhaps the lid, the decoration dates from various periods after 1637. The painting on the wrestplank and the treble part of the soundboard is modern. The outside of the case, the keywell and the soundwell above the soundboard are decorated with English eighteenth-century lacquer work with a vermilion red ground and gold-coloured bronze powder vinework decoration. The latter has been highlighted with pen work and sepia wash. The inside of the lid flap has an anonymous seventeenth-century Flemish painting of St Cecilia playing the organ 1637]
  • Source

    University of Edinburgh
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Sopransaxophon, Adolphe Sax Company, [Although Adolphe Sax is best known for his patent for the Saxophone in 1846 the instrument's importance for the lower voices of military music, he conceived the saxophone family in sizes from sub-contrabass up to soprano. Today, with the sopranino saxophone and the "Soprillo", there are two even smaller sizes. The instrument shown here represents the smallest size conceived by Sax himself. While Sax attributed to the saxophones a sound close to bowed string instruments, but much louder, Belioz characterised the sound as penetrating, but without the shrill timbre of small clarinets.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Sopransaxophon
  • Creator

    Adolphe Sax Company, [Although Adolphe Sax is best known for his patent for the Saxophone in 1846 the instrument's importance for the lower voices of military music, he conceived the saxophone family in sizes from sub-contrabass up to soprano. Today, with the sopranino saxophone and the "Soprillo", there are two even smaller sizes. The instrument shown here represents the smallest size conceived by Sax himself. While Sax attributed to the saxophones a sound close to bowed string instruments, but much louder, Belioz characterised the sound as penetrating, but without the shrill timbre of small clarinets.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Foto: Günther Kühnel
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Bassklarinette, 1842, Charles-Joseph, Adolphe Sax, [Bass clarinet made of three parts, the upper part and the bell made of brass, the middle part of boxwood. The instrument has 14 (+7) brass keys but traces on the middle part show that some keys have been moved. The instrument is an experimental piece and possibly a prototype for the version introduced into military bands in 1845, which were manufactured entirely from brass.], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Bassklarinette, 1842
  • Creator

    Charles-Joseph, Adolphe Sax, [Bass clarinet made of three parts, the upper part and the bell made of brass, the middle part of boxwood. The instrument has 14 (+7) brass keys but traces on the middle part show that some keys have been moved. The instrument is an experimental piece and possibly a prototype for the version introduced into military bands in 1845, which were manufactured entirely from brass.]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Guitare de Hector Berlioz, Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.], Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-SA
  • Title

    Guitare de Hector Berlioz
  • Creator

    Grobert, [This beautiful guitar was donated by Hector Berlioz to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire when he its librarian and curator. It is signed on the bridge by Berlioz and by the violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini (both played the guitar). The instrument was provided by the violin maker Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume for a series of recitals in Paris.]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO
  • Rights

    CC BY-SA
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Mittenwalder Zither, Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Mittenwalder Zither
  • Creator

    Unknown, Foto: Günther Kühnel, [This zither in the so-called "Mittenwald" shape is said to have belonged to Franz Xaver Gruber. In 1818, Gruber composed the world-wide known Christmas song "Silent night, holy night" based on a poem by Joseph Mohr.]
  • Source

    Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Lute, 1722, Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)], Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Lute, 1722
  • Creator

    Thomas d. J. Edlinger, [This lute by Thomas Edlinger jun. is, except for the table, completely made of ebony. It bears 13 courses. It is said that Edlinger built the first 13-course lutes on advice by the famous composer and Dresden court lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750)]
  • Source

    Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940, Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily] , Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Guitare de Django Reinhardt, 1940
  • Creator

    Henri Selmer, [This guitar was owned by famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. Since its entry to the Museum in 1964 it has become an iconic object. This model was developed by Mario Maccaferri and has several innovations including a special soundboard design and the signature 'cutaway' of the body which allowed the left hand to reach the extreme high notes easily]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Albert Giordan MIMO
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960, E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ], Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Synthétiseur de Frank Zappa, c. 1960
  • Creator

    E-MU Systems, [Electricity and electronics became crucial factors in instrument making in the twentieth century. Some new instruments converted mechanical vibrations into electrical oscillations, others used electronic oscillators to amplify and modify the sound of traditional instruments or to generate signals and create new sounds. The first commercial synthesizer was built by Robert Moog in 1964. Because of its ability to produce a wide variety of sounds, it created a new musical language, used primarily in pop and rock. This particular analogue synthesizer was developed specifically for Frank Zappa, to be controlled from an electric guitar. ]
  • Source

    Cité de la musique / Jean-Marc Anglès MIMO
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982, Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today.  Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.] , Musikmuseet, Stockholm, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Benny Andersson's Synthesizer, c.1982
  • Creator

    Yamaha, [Made in the early 1980s and therefore towards the end of ABBA's career, the GS-1 was Yamaha’s first digital FM synthesizer. When it was first launched it cost around 12,000 euros, which is equivalent to around 50,000 euros today. Specifications; Digital FM dual 4 operator synthesizer, 16-note polyphony, Multi-timbral (number of parts): 2, 3 built in foot switches, 1 FC-3A expression pedal, Chorus effect, 88-key velocity sensitive keyboard, and 16 presets.]
  • Source

    Musikmuseet, Stockholm
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici, Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Salterio marmo belonged to Grand Duke Cosimo III de Medici
  • Creator

    Michele Antonio Grandi (attr.), [This instrument is a unique piece of its kind, in that all its parts are made of different qualities of marble. The soundboard is made from a slab of white statuary marble from Carrara, in which two rosettes are cut; the body and brides are in bardiglio marble, again from Carrara, while the two blocks to which the strings are fixed, are in yellow broccatello. Although the instrument must originally have had only decorative functions, it nevertheless faithfully reflects all the technical characteristics of this type of instruments of that time.The instrument survives in its original case, where the decoration on the inner side of the lid indicates a gift to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici (1642-1723) and from the heraldry we can deduce that the instrument was made sometime after 1691. The manufacture of the instrument is attributed to Michele Antonio Grandi from Carrara, who was known to have built a number of marble instruments, including a guitar, a harpsichord and several recorders, for the Este court in Modena. The coincidence of time, geographical area, and the relations that existed between the two courts, all contribute to support this theory.]
  • Source

    Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici, Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.], Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    Ebony harpsichord that belonged to Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici
  • Creator

    Bartolomeo Cristofori, [Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663-1713) persuaded the Paduan maker Bartolomeo Cristofori to move to Florence and become “strumentaio” at his court, probably after having met with him during a trip to Venice. Here Cristofori invented, some ten years later, the pianoforte. In the meanwhile, however, his production continually experimented and explored with shapes, sizes and materials as is shown by this harpsichord, entirely made of ebony and ivory: two materials that were particularly appreciated by the Medici at that time. The instrument is not signed, but it was reliably attributed to the maker through an accurate description that appears in the inventory of the instruments belonging to the private collection of Ferdinando in the year 1700, the same that includes also the very first description of a pianoforte.]
  • Source

    Galleria dell'Accademia Dipartimento degli strumenti Musicali, Firenze
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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"Chief's drum", 1916, Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.], Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, CC BY-NC-SA
  • Title

    "Chief's drum", 1916
  • Creator

    Anonymous, [Huge chief's drum, resting on 5 carved buffalo heads (height: 117 cm, diameter: 37 cm). The cylindrical body becomes slightly narrower towards the membrane, and is carved with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic reliefs all around. The carvings depict daily work activities and representations of animals belonging to the mythology of the Cameroonian Grassfields, including the buffalo which is one of the "four chief animals." The membrane is made of buffalo hide and is played by hands. Color: yellowish brown.]
  • Source

    Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
  • Rights

    CC BY-NC-SA
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