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EuropeanaFashion Explore fashion - historical clothing and accessories, contemporary designs, catwalk photographs, drawings, sketches, plates, catalogues and videos - from museums and archives across Europe.
Europeana Fashion - launched with a new look in May 2017 - brings together the digitised collections of more than 30 European public and private institutions.
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“Anderi”. Coatdress.H. 1.22 m.Ioannina, Epirus, Greece. Early... “Anderi”. Coatdress.H. 1.22 m.Ioannina, Epirus, Greece. Early 20th century.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, Nafplion.Donated by Ioanna Papantoniou. 1976.6.365.“Anderi”. White brocade coatdress with gold stripes and small green flowers. 24 Jun 08:13 tumblr
“Kavadi”. Overcoat.H. 1.32 m.Silli, Ikonio, Asia... “Kavadi”. Overcoat.H. 1.32 m.Silli, Ikonio, Asia Minor.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, NafplionDonated by Ioanna Papantoniou. 1976.6.120.“Kavadi”. Long-sleved pink brocade bridal overcoat of the Greeks of Silli, Ikonio, Asia Minor, decorated with woven-in gold flowers and gold braid. 24 Jun 07:27 tumblr
Runway Archive: Yves Saint Laurent S/S 1984 Yves Saint Laurent s/s 1984 ready to wear collection, photo by Paul Van Riel. Image courtesy Paul Van Riel, all rights reserved. In this picture a model is walking the runway of Yves Saint Laurent s/s 1984 fashion show held at the Cour du Louvre, swinging her printed black chiffon dress. The dress, long to the feet, is multi-layered and is composed by a wide skirt and a ruffled top. The print on black backgroud looks like ribbons and confettis, in the colours of red, blue, white and orange. To complete the silhouette, the model is wearing a chuncky gold necklace and wide red hearrings, and a veiled hat with a big rose on its top. In the 1970s and all through the 80s, Yves Saint Laurent revolutionized Couture bringing new air in the almost centenary French tradition. He is said to have taken inspiration 'from the street', overturning the rules of the ever-imposing couture. Throughout his career - which began as assistant of Christian Dior and, soon after his death, as director of the Maison Dior - his indomitable style led him to become one of the most celebrated French designers. 23 Jun blog
Customization as Craft: Punk and DIY Aesthetics Every action that involves the use of hands to make something, or to make a change on something, can be considered a craft. This is why styling - as a way of creating an image by piecing together different items and also modifying them - can in some cases be called craft. In the 1970, the Punk movement originated in the UK. Together with it came Do-It-Yourself aesthetics and practices, directly affecting the material culture and image of the movement. Punk ensemble, beginning of the 1980s, Courtesy Stieflsen Nordiska Museet, All Rights Reserved The punk movement came as a violent and loud response to the institutional structure that was suffocating the lower classes. Using their visibility as first weapon to counteract this stagnant situation, punks exploited fashion in order to stand out and make their voice heard through their appearance, so strikingly different from the middle class men and women they were protesting against. The protest happened also through the active production of material culture: using as a basis some of the codes of British culture - the Scottish check, for example - Punks used to customize their clothing and accessories with other symbols. The most iconic were safety pins, used to reconstruct the items that were deliberately ripped or torn. Seditionaries by Vivienne Westwood, 1977, Courtesy MUDE - Museo do Design e da Moda, All Rights Reserved Interestingly, early Punk fashion was based, more than on designing items, on styling what was ready to buy. Customization came in all forms and allowed punk aesthetic to develop as a craft. The most skilled at this craft managed to turn the movement into a business. The names most commonly linked to the Punk Movements were Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren, who opened Sex and Seditionaries in the Chelsey area in London in the 1970s. Items from Zandra Rhodes collection, 1977, Courtesy Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, All Rights Reserved Another designer who got inspired by the Punk Aesthetic was Zandra Rhodes, who presented a collection called Conceptual Chic in 1977, which featured safety pins, chains and other symbols of what started as a DIY aesthetic. 22 Jun blog
“Baboukli”. Short bodice.H. 0,11 m.Skopelos, Sporades, Greece.... “Baboukli”. Short bodice.H. 0,11 m.Skopelos, Sporades, Greece. Early 20th century.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, Nafplion.Donated by Ioanna Papantoniou. 1976.6.93.“Baboukli”. Long-sleeved (“broumanika”) crimson velvet short bodice decorated with gold braid. 19 Jun 20:29 tumblr
A Craft's Story: the Delphos Dress Mariano Fortuny was an inventor, interested in the electricity and focused on the invention of lightning techniques and other technological devices. He patented over two thousand invention; but one of the most famous, the Delphos dress, was an example craftmanship, completely produced by hand in his Venetian workshop. Delphos dress by Mariano Fortuny, 1911 ca. Courtesy Galleria del Costume di Palazzo Pitti, all rights reserved. Mariano Fortuny was a one kind of total artist. Impressed by the music of Richard Wagner after assisting to Bayreuth Festival at the age of 21, the Spanish artist, designer and inventor made his ambition that to achieve the gesamtkunstwerk. He applied himself to different artistic disciplines, including painting, photography, sculpture, engraving and scenography. Based in Venice, where he moved with his family from Paris following the death of his father, he made of the Palazzo that he inhabited his atelier. Detail, belt of a Delphos dress, Mariano Fortuny, 1920-1940 ca. Courtesy Museo Del Traje, all rights reserved. The Delphos dress was his contribution to couture. Having experimented with printing techniques and dying on velvet, producing scarfs and shawls that were worn by Mata Hari among others, the Delphos gave form to his research and curiosity over dress. It was inspired by the line of the chiton, an ancient Greek costume that consisted of a long tunic worn over the body and fixed to the waist with a belt. The Delphos, made in Venetian velvet or in thin Japanese silk fabric, was a long pleated dress, with no seams, and bind with Venetian glass beads. “Peplos” gown by Mariano Fortuny, a variation of the “Delphos”, of pleated mauve silk, decorated with Murano glass beads at the side and gold prints at the belt; 1910s. Courtesy Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation, all rights reserved. Although Mariano Fortuny was focused throughout his life in new technologies and inventions, the Delphos dress was crafted entirely by hand in his venetian workshop, where he overlooked each procedure of its production, which involved not only dying and hand pleating the fabric with the technique of ‘plissé soleis’, but also the hand dying of the thread used for the details and to fix the glass beads, and their application. The Delphos dress was first invented by the artist in 1907. It was light enough to be wrapped and put in a hatbox. It was conceived to be worn without corset, its pleated fabric clinging to the body, freeing the previously constrictive women’s silhouette. For its simple lines and freedom of movement it enabled, the Delphos was appreciated and worn by many artist, such as the dance innovators Martha Graham and Isadora Duncan. 19 Jun blog
Europeana Fashion Focus: Ensemble by Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1947 Esemble designed by Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1947. Courtesy MUDE - Museu do Design e da Moda, all rights reserved. The image shows an ensemble designed by Cristóbal Balenciaga in 1947. The ensemble is composed by a long dress and a bolero. Both items are in bright red, and decorated with rich embroidery in floral and vegetable motifs and beads, concentrated on the lapel line and sleeves for the bolero, and around the neckline and waistline for the dress. Cristóbal Balenciaga was a Spanish fashion designer known as “The King of Fashion” for the groundbreaking designs he presented, and especially for the iconic silhouettes he developed during the 1950s and 1960s. Son of a seamstress, at the age of twelve he began working as apprentice in a tailor shop in Getaria, his hometown in the north of Spain. When Balenciaga was just a teenager, a noblewoman in his town became his customer and patron, sending him to Madrid to train as tailor in one of the best schools of the capital. He opened a boutique in San Sebastián, in the north of Spain, in 1919, and then other two branches in Madrid and Barcelona. Amongst his clients, were the Spanish royal family and the aristocracy. However, at the end of the 1930s, the Spanish Civil War forced him to close his business and immigrate to Paris. He opened his first atelier on George V Avenue in 1937. Balenciaga’s earliest collections were heavily influenced by Spanish history and culture, to which the designer was very attached to. The references to Spanish culture remained consistent throughout his whole career. Talking about the designer, Diana Vreeland declared: "Balenciaga was the true son of a strong country filled with style, vibrant color, and a fine history. He remained forever a Spaniard…his inspiration came from the bullrings, the flamenco dancers, the fishermen in their boots and loose blouses, the glories of the church and the cool of the cloisters and monasteries. He took their colors, their cuts, then festooned them to his own taste.” 18 Jun blog
“Kinaroto”. Off-white silk chemise.H. 1.18 m.Soufli, Thrace,... “Kinaroto”. Off-white silk chemise.H. 1.18 m.Soufli, Thrace, Greece. Early 20th century.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, Nafplion.Donated by Ioanna Papantoniou. 1976.6.1640.“Kinaroto”. Long-sleeved, off-white silk chemise with woven in stripes (“ouges”) with a red coloured line, the “kinari”. 15 Jun 21:30 tumblr
Sleeveless off-white cotton chemise.H. 1.35 m.Mesogeia region,... Sleeveless off-white cotton chemise.H. 1.35 m.Mesogeia region, Attica, Greece. Early 20th century.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, Nafplion.Donated by Ioanna Papantoniou. 1976.6.625.Sleeveless, off-white cotton chemise, typical of the Attic costume, with a vertical opening at the front, decorated on the hem with multicoloured silk embroideries of geometric motifs. 14 Jun 21:51 tumblr
The Other Side of Modernity: The Arts and Crafts Movement The industrial revolution is often regarded as the key moment for the beginning of a new era. In his book ‘The great divergence', historian Kenneth Pomeranz individuated Western culture, specifically Great Britain, as the cradle of a new positive sensibility towards machines, that ultimately led to modernisation. However, together with this modernity came the negative effect of industrialisation, which led designers and artists to develop new approaches and ways to express social anxieties. One of the responses to these feelings and contradictions was the Arts & Craft Movement. Child's embroidered silk coat, probably British, 1880-95. Courtesy Victoria and Albert Museum, CC BY The Arts & Craft Movement was founded during the 1880s by a group of designers and artists working in London. It was based on the idea that craftsmanship was an enjoyable practice, as opposed to mechanic work, and could help men to express their interiority, naturally drawn towards art and beauty. Critic John Ruskin was the one who theorised the aims and philosophy of the movement, and wrote extensively about the connections between the social role of art and the value of work. The name more directly associated with the movement is that of William Morris, who was a textile designer, poet, and social activist. Drawing from Ruskin’s writings, through his work he campaigned for return to hand-craftsmanship, recognising to artisans the status of artists, and to a closer contact with nature. Indeed, the privileged motifs characterising the aesthetics of the movement took inspiration from the natural world: leaves, flower, animals composed the scenes illustrated on textiles and stitched in the embroideries. Collar of embroidered linen with silks, designed and embroidered by Jessie Newbery, Glasgow, ca. 1900. Courtesy Victoria and Albert Museum, CC BY Another centre where a similar movement developed was Glasgow, precisely at the Glasgow School of Art, where studied the likes of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Margaret and Frances McDonald, Herbert MacNair. The Glasgow scene counted for many women designers, who focused their practice on textiles and embroideries. Amongst them were Jessie King, an illustrator whose designs were sold at the Liberty Department Store in London, and Jessie Newbery, who produced embroideries and was also a teacher at the Glasgow School of Art. However, the movement was not entirely against industrial techniques; designers were in fact keen on collaborating with industries, as long as the products were produced according to an ethical code that safeguarded the identity of both materials, and of the people working with them. 12 Jun blog
Dress of the “skleta” costume.Astypalaia, Dodecanese, Greece.... Dress of the “skleta” costume.Astypalaia, Dodecanese, Greece. Early 20th century.Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation Collection, Nafplion.1977.6.235.Green satin dress with shoulder straps and a gathered skirt with broad horizontal pleats. Off-white lining. 11 Jun 20:59 tumblr